其中一篇不仅摘要为彻头彻尾的“机器（网络）软件翻译”，而且将文后所列举的10多条中文参考文献的题名、刊名、单位（机构）名称等要素也以“机器”代译了。例如，将王振锋等学者发表在《煤炭学报》（Journal of China Coal Society）（2015.3）上的“新型瓦斯抽采钻孔注浆封孔方法及封堵机理”（Novel gas extraction borehole grouting sealing method and sealing mechanism）“翻成”了“New gas extraction from borehole grouting hole sealing method and plugging mechanism”，将《煤炭学报》直译成“Journal of coal”。
又如，将中国矿业大学（China University of Mining & Technology）成艳英的学位论文“本煤层钻孔瓦斯抽采失效机制及高效密封技术研究”（Research on Failure Mechanisms of Gas Drainage through Drilling in Coal Seam and Efficient Sealing Technology）题名“翻成”了“This gas extraction from coal seam drilling failure mechanism and efficient sealing technology research”，而且将“中国矿业大学”直译成“China Mining University”。
再如，将刘桂丽等作者发表在我校学报（自然版）上的“高位钻孔瓦斯抽采参数优化设计”（Optimal design of high position boring drainage parameters）直译成“High drilling gas extraction parameters optimization design”。
另外，单位（机构）的相应英文名称一般比较固定或约定俗成，千万不要随心所欲的自行直译，也就是说，“中国矿业大学”的英文名称应为“China University of Mining & Technology”，而不要以字面直译为“China Mining University”；“煤炭学报”的英文名称应为“Journal of China Coal Society”，而不是“Journal of coal”。
★We usethe Compound Topographic Index (CTI) to represent moisture content of the area.
★At this time the measured displacementshoweda sharp up slope movement followed by a steady but increasing down slope movement
★We also usethe p-values (defined as the probability of finding a test statistic value as great as the observed test statistic value, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to assess the significance of each regression coefficient….We rejectthe null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the significance value (α)we choose; here,we useα=0.001, corresponding to a 99% confidence level. Therefore if p<α,we rejectthe null hypothesis, and therebyassumethat the regression coefficient is not equal to zero, and equals the computed value.
★In order to apply this approach to a global data set,we usemultiple landslide inventories to calibrate the model. Using the model formula previously determined (using the Wenchuan earthquake data),we usethe four datasets discussed in Section 1.3.1 in our global database to determine the coefficients for the global model.
★The resulting databaseis used tobuild a predicative model of the probability of landslide occurrence.
★Substantial efforthas been invested tounderstand where seismically induced landslides may occur in the future, as they are a costly and frequently fatal threat in mountainous regions。
★Performance of the regression modelis assessedusing statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxiesprovidesboth the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas andminimizesthe false alarms in non-landslide zones.
★This paperreviewsthese factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes, environmental impacts, and remediation of mine tailings dam failures.
★This conceptual modelallowedthe deformation of elements within the slope to be kept to a minimum.
★Those numerical studies mentioned above successfullyvalidatedthe usage of supplemental means for the full scale tests and alsocontributed todevelop and optimize new type of rockfall barrier system effectively.
★ The slope, however,was observedto remain largely saturated for most of the year with a phreatic surface near or at the surface.
★We beginmodeling by assessing qualitative relationships within the data, moving forward by using logistic regression as a statistical method for establishing a functional form between the predictor variables and the outcomes (Figure 3).We iterateover combinations of predictor variables and outcomes within the model, focusing first on one training event (Wenchuan, China), with the ultimate goal of expanding the analysis to global landslide datasets.
★Median, minimum, and maximum slope values calculated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data by Verdian et al. (2007)are usedin tests of the model.
★Ifwe define20% probability of a landslide to be the threshold, any probability equal to or greater than 20% will thenbe definedas a landslide prediction.
★The RS unit is suitable for testing both fully-softened shear strength and residual shear strength parametersthat canbe usedforslope stability assessments of various scenarios.
★Approximately 5% of all earthquake-related fatalitiesare causedby seismically induced landslides, in some cases causing a majority of non-shaking deaths.
★Unsaturated residual shear strength can alsobe usedas a macroscopic indicator of the nature of micro-structural changes experienced by the soils when subjected to drying.
★These datawereoriginallycalculatedfor the purpose of mechanical landslide modeling, andare used here asa statistical constraint on landslide susceptibility.
我们都知道，no表示“没有，不许，一点儿也没有，决不是”等意思，如“No smoking”，“No Admittance Except On Business”，“No Admittance Except To Employees On Duty”。
Non表示“非，不，无”等含义（non可以与许多词组成复合词，可连写或加连字符；但若后面的词的词首为大写时，则必须加连字符，如：non-EU countries），如non-smoker（不吸烟者或非吸烟者），Non-smokerslive longer, healthy life（非吸烟者健康长寿）；而“No smokerswould believe that secondhand smoke is harmful to non-smokers' health”意味著“没有吸烟者会相信二手烟对不吸烟者的健康有害”，或“吸烟者根本不会相信二手烟对非吸烟者的健康有害”！
例一：Non-government organizationsare supportive to this project. (非政府组织支持这个项目）
No government organizationsare supportive to this project. (没有政府组织支持这个项目，或政府组织决不会支持这个项目）
例二：Unregulated lenders andnon-U.S. bankswill probably step into the breach. 这里的“non-U.S. banks”是指非美国银行或美国以外的其他国家银行。
而“NoU.S. bankswill probably step into the breach”中的“noU.S. banks”是指没有美国银行，也就是说，“U.S banks will probably refuse to step into the breach”。
例三： “Performance of the regression model is assessed using statistical goodness-of-fit metrics and a qualitative review to determine which combination of the proxies provides both the optimum predication of landslide-affected areas and minimizes the false alarms innon-landslide zones”中的“non-landslide zones”是指非滑坡区，也就是还没有发生滑坡的区域；但“nolandslide zones”为没有滑坡的区域，也就是所涉及的区域不存在滑坡灾害或不会发生滑坡。
例四：“Approximately 5% of all earthquake-related fatalities are caused by seismically induced landslides, in some cases causing a majority ofnon-shaking deaths”中的“non-shaking deaths”是指非地震死亡，也就是死亡不是直接由地震导致的。
例五：No employeewho works so hard for so little money deserves this andno human beingin the world deserves this.... Although the video is receiving international attention, Toronto police told CTV News Toronto that they aren’t investigating the encounter as a hate-related incident and said thatno official complainthad been filed.
例六：American warplanes bombed an Iranian-backed militia that entered a supposedno-go zonenear a U.S garrison in southern Syria on Tuesday.
例七：The invasion of the city comes asno surprise, as the SDF has been encircling the city for months, and U.S. airstrikes have been bombing Islamic State positions for much of the past year.
例八：There isno organizationclaiming responsibility for the billboard. Shahid said the billboard also doesn't bear any company name, indicating that it is privately owned...."It's just a group of cowards who are not even ready to put their name behind it," Shahid said as she expressed the pain she felt to see this billboard in the midst of Ramadan.
在编辑工作中，笔者发现一些国内作者用英语表达我们汉语中的“倍数”时容易出错，例如，将“这个样品的体积是那个样品的5倍”译成“The volume of this sample is five times bigger than that one”。如果把该译文再翻译成汉语的话，那就是“这个样品的体积比那个样品大5倍”。
The volume of this sample is five times that one.
This sample is five times the volume of that one.
The volume of this sample is five times as big as that one.
The volume of this sample is four times bigger than that one.
如果**是**的2或两倍，那么用“twice”就更地道了，如American workers were paid on average twice as much as workers in China.
The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas.The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 21 times that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 7 times that of equivalent CO2.
当然，也可以“The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas. The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 21 times as great as that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 7 times as great as that of equivalent CO2”
或以“The research has shown that CH4in CBM is also a kind of greenhouse gas. The relative contribution of the CH4to global warming is 20 times greater than that of equivalent carbon dioxide, and its destructive capacity for ozone layer is 6 times greater than that of equivalent CO2”来表达同样的意思。
在编辑实际工作中，笔者有时发现有些作者的英文论文或中文论文英文摘要中会出现“、”、“。”等中文标点符号。就在昨日笔者路过一面包店时，发现该店的英文宣传语“********* accompanies your life every day. We only provide the baking products which are healthy、safety、exquisit and delicious Welcome to the baking culture sightseeing factory of *********.”中有两个顿号“、”。
一提到“应用”，人们自然会想到application或apply。例如，国内学者往往会把“大数据与认知计算在学习过程中的作用”翻译成“Application of big data and cognitive computing in the learning process”，但国外学者可能会以“The role of big data and cognitive computing in the learning process”表达同样的意思。
例如，“煤岩相特征化在煤自燃势探测中的应用”可译成“Petrographic characterization of coals as a tool to detect spontaneous combustion potential”；
又如，“三维计算机视觉技术在肉鸡重量预测中的应用”可翻成“Weight prediction of broiler chickens using 3D computer vision”；
“基于词典的稀疏表示在多焦图像融合中的应用”也可译为“Multi-focus image fusion using dictionary-based sparse representation”；
我们还可以“Feature extraction and soft computing methods for aerospace structure defect classification”来表达“特征提取与软计算方法在宇航结构瑕疵分类中的应用”。
我校材料学院郑斌博士与美国劳伦斯伯克利国家重点实验室和沙特阿卜杜拉国王科技大学合作完成的研究成果论文“Unravelling surface and interfacial structures of a metal-organic framework by transmission electron microscopy”（通过透射电子显微镜揭示金属-有机框架表面和界面结构）[2017年2月20日发表在《Nature》（自然）子刊《Nature Materials》（自然·材料）]引起了笔者的持续关注。在这篇论文的题目（title）中，既没有study或research，也没有analysis或application，而是一个“画龙点睛”、“开门见山”的题目。
例如，国际权威学术杂志《Nature Materials》(自然·材料) 2017年2月20日在线发表的“Unravelling surface and interfacial structures of a metal-organic framework by transmission electron microscopy”研究成果论文是我校材料科学与工程学院郑斌博士与美国劳伦斯伯克利国家重点实验室和沙特阿卜杜拉国王科技大学12位学者合作完成的。
但也有例外，如International Journal of Coal Geology不论作者名单有多长，都不鼓励使用et al，如：
Dai, S., Zhang, W., Ward, C.R., Seredin, V.V., Hower, J.C., Li, X., Song, W., Wang, X., Kang, H., Zheng, L., Wang, P., Zhou, D., 2013. Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, southern China: influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids. Int. J. Coal Geol. 105, 60–84.
例如，These samples, upon arrival at the surface, were immediately wrapped in cling wrap(保鲜膜), triple bagged（三重包装） in thick plastic bags, sealed and refrigerated(between 4-10℃)to prevent any loss of water. 这里“三重包装”的译文为“triple bagged”，非常简练，也十分地道。
又如，In unconfined conditions, data related to the post-peak region of the intact rock parameters are not common as pre-peak and peak state parameters of stress–strain behavior. 这里的“post-peak…”及“pre-peak…”是非常地道的表达。
例1，Climate change poses risks to our national security, our economy, and our public health.
例2，Climate change poses a threat to our economy and to the world.
例1中的“poses risks to”及例2 中的“poses a threat to”都是英美文化“思维”的地道表达。
例3，Mobilization of residual strength can occur by operational induced strains and/or the presence of water. 毫无疑问，这里的“mobilization”肯定会强化人们对“residual strength”潜在危害的关注度。
例4，美国学者Alex Shaw, et al是这样介绍有关“Children’s Gestures”研究现状的：
Much of the existing previous work on children’s gestures focuses on providing insight into how designers can improve children’s touchscreen experiences when using gesture-based interfaces. A study by Hiniker et al.found that children respond better to gesture prompts that are designed specifically for younger users than to standard prompts. Research by Anthony et al.has shown the importance of providing visual feedback for children when making gestures, and a study by McKnight and Fitton demonstrated the benefits of compensating for errors that children tend to make when articulating gestures, such as unintended touches. Aziz et al.examined appropriate gesture sets for children ages 2 to 4 years old, and Nacher et al.offered a set of guidelines for designing multi-touch gestures for children based on a study of kids ages 2 to 3 years old. Hamza and Salivia showed that 4 and 5 year-olds’ ability to use gestures like zoom-in and drag-and-drop is affected by target size and position. We add to the existing literatureby characterizing gestures elicited from children ages 5 to 10 based on a number of different geometric, kinematic, and relative accuracy features. (Alex Shaw, et al)
除以“at a temperature of ”、“at temperatures of”、“at”等引出“temperature”之外，还有许多形形色色的“temperature”的实际用法。下面是笔者在浏览英文文献过程中看到的相关实例，供读者参考。
★Thus, sample Well-A-A002 was analyzed at a temperature of 42 ℃, Well A-A001 at 56 ℃ and Well A-A015 at 65 ℃.
★Thus, these natural CRB nontronites（绿脱石） are all likely to have formed at temperatures of ＜100°C.
★Decarreau and colleagues also observed smectite growth to be very slow except at elevated temperatures.
★From measurements of crystal growth at several temperatures, they derived an Arrhenius relationship for nontronite（绿脱石） formation, indicating that a ferric smectite with coherent domains～100A in size should form in ～ 10 y at 25°C and in ～ 200 y at 2°C.
★Application of these studies to nontronite formation from mafic precursors suggests that the formation of highly crystalline nontronite in nature may require long formation times at relatively low temperatures.
★The present study further investigated this synthesis by examining the crystallinity of a set of synthetic nontronite incubated at 23, 95, and 150°C.
★It cannot have occurred at temperatures above 100°C because liquid water in the open cracks would have escaped by boiling.
★Based on the oxygen isotopic composition of the Mururoa nontronites (Meunier et al., 2008, 2009), estimated formation temperatures were between 64 and 109°C,….
★On the atomic scale, the 95°C sample was clearly less well ordered than the natural nontronite samples or the 150°C sample.
★The experimental work of Decarreau et al. (2008) places a high-temperature limit of 200°C for the formation of the void-filling clays.
★… maximum burial temperatures of ～ 50°C.
★CRB nonotronite formation occurred at temperatures close to 100°C.
★In addition, the physical environment of CRB nontronites constrains their formation temperatures to be ＜100°C.
★The formation temperature of natural nontronite in the CRB can be constrained based on field observations.
★For a CRB nontronite precipitated in an open crack, the temperature of formation must have been below the boiling point of water.
★Jakobsson and Moore (1986) found that at 100°C palagonite formed a rim on basaltic glass at a rate of 2.8 um/y, and that this rate doubled with every 12°C increase in temperature. At temperatures＞120°C, nontronite formed a rim on olivine crystals at a rate of 0.3 um/y; this rate doubled with every 8°C increase, but nontronite growth was not observed at lower temperatures. This growth rate is faster than the rates measured experimentally by Decarreau et al. (1987), but drops more rapidly with temperature.
去过华山的人都知道，华山有“俯渭崖，擦耳崖，冲宵崖，舍身崖，避诏崖，明星崖，日月崖，仙掌崖”等9崖。假如我们用网络上比较流行的某免费机器翻译软件直接翻译的话，这9崖会被“翻成” “Fu Wei Ya, ear rub cliff, red cliff, Xiao Ya, Ya Ya star, from Chao, sun ya, Ya Xian Zhang”这样可笑的译文，简直与较为地道的“Looking into Wei River, Touching Ear, Thrusting into the Clouds; Sacrificing Oneself, Escaping the Imperial Edict, Bright Star, Sun and Moon, Immortal Palm”的译文相距十万八千里！
再如，如果把秦《峄山刻石》上的“追念乱世，分土建邦，以开争理。攻战日作，流血于野， 自泰古始。世无万数，陀及五帝，莫能禁止。乃今皇帝，一家天下，兵不复起。灾害灭除，黔首康定，利则长久”直接粘贴到网络上某免费翻译软件的文字框里，点击“翻译”按钮就会呈现“Remember the times, divided into civil state, to open for reasons. Attack on, bleeding in the wild, since the beginning of taigu. There is no million, and the top, nothing can be banned. This is the emperor, a world, will rise again. Disaster elimination, the common people of Kangding, and has long”的译文，这样的“译文”实在让人“丈二和尚摸不着头脑”。其实该段碑文较为地道的译文应为：
They[the Qin ministers] recalled and contemplate the times of chaos:
When [regional lords] apportioned the land, established their states,
And thus unfolded the pattern of struggles.
Attacks and campaigns were daily waged;
They shed their blood in the open countryside ---
This had begun in highest antiquity.
Through untold generations
One [rule] followed another down to the Five Thearchs,
And no one could prohibit or stop them.
Now Today, the August Thearch
Has unified all-under Heaven into one family ---
Warfare will not arise again!
Disaster and harm are exterminated and erased,
The black-headed people live in peace and stability,
今年3月份在编辑我校2016年第2期学报（自然版）英文部分时，笔者发现一作者文后所附的“智能分户供暖监控系统的无线温控器设计，视频监控系统在火灾报警中的应用，煤矿井下WiFi 人员定位GIS 系统设计与实现，矿井有限空间WIFI 信号测评系统研究”等4篇参考文献的英文题名分别是“Smart household heating thermostat wireless monitoring system design, Video surveillance system in the fire alarm, Wi-Fi coal mine personnel positioning GIS system design and implementation, Mine limited space research WIFI signal evaluation system”，这引起了我的警觉，因为凭直觉我断定原作者不可能将自己的题名译成这样的“生硬”英文。后来经查证，这4篇论文的中文题名原作者分别译为“Design of wireless temperature controller based on household heating control system, Application of video surveillance system in fire alarm, The design and implementation of WiFi localization GIS for mine, Research of mine limited space WIFI signal evaluation system”，均为较为地道的翻译。
在一般交流过程中，英式英语和美式英语之混用不会引起较大误解与歧义，但如果要给英美学术刊物投稿的话，我们就得留意了。一般原则是，在一篇论文或文章中不要出现英、美英语的混用问题，也就是说，在同一一篇论文或文章中，要么全是“英式英语”，要么全是“美式英语”。例如，“Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organised square dance every morning, and eating colorful meals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”中的“organised”是英式英语拼写，而“colorful”却是美式拼写，这样的混用易于引起编辑的不悦之感，也就是说，这句话要么全是英式英语“Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organisedsquare dance every morning, and eatingcolourfulmeals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”，要么全为美式英语 “Getting some exercise every week, taking part in the dama-organizedsquare dance every morning, and eatingcolorfulmeals with friends can be an enjoyable way to live a healthier life”。
1. Coal deposits as potential alternative sources for lanthanides and yttrium [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 67–93]
2. Determination of As and Se in coal and coal combustion products using closed vessel microwave digestion and collision/reaction cell technology (CCT) of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) [International Journal of Coal Geology 124 (2014) 1–4]
3. Elemental andmineralogical anomalies in the coal-hosted Ge ore deposit of Lincang, Yunnan, southwestern China: Key role of N2–CO2-mixed hydrothermal solutions [International Journal of Coal Geology 152 (2015) 19–46]
4. Enrichment of U–Se–Mo–Re–V in coals preserved within marine carbonate successions: geochemical and mineralogical data from the Late Permian Guiding Coalfield, Guizhou, China [Miner Deposita (2015) 50:159–186]
5. Geochemical and mineralogical evidence for a coal-hosted uranium deposit in the Yili Basin, Xinjiang, northwestern China [Ore Geology Reviews 70 (2015) 1–30]
6. Geochemistry of trace elements in Chinese coals: A review of abundances, genetic types, impacts on human health, and industrial utilization [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 3–21]
7. Mineralogical and geochemical compositions of the Pennsylvanian coal in the Adaohai Mine, Daqingshan Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China: Modes of occurrence and origin of diaspore, gorceixite, and ammonian illite [International Journal of Coal Geology 94 (2012) 250–270]
8. Origin of minerals and elements in the Late Permian coals, tonsteins, and host rocks of the Xinde Mine, Xuanwei, eastern Yunnan, China [International Journal of Coal Geology 121 (2014) 53–78]
9. Mineralogical and geochemical anomalies of late Permian coals from the Fusui Coalfield, Guangxi Province, southern China: Influences of terrigenous materials and hydrothermal fluids [International Journal of Coal Geology 105 (2013) 60–84]
“产能过剩”通常译为“excess production capacity”，如“The Chinese finance minister said that China needs time to allow market forces to reduce excess production capacity”，或“overcapacity”，如“Speaking at the event's opening ceremony, Chinese President Xi Jinping promised action on reducing overcapacity”，又如“Overcapacity is a global problem brought on by weaker demand, and implementing policies to substantially reduce production in a range of sectors suffering from overcapacity, including steel and aluminum, is critical to the function and stability of international markets”。
也可将“产能过剩”译为“excess capacity”，如“China is no longer a centrally planed economy. We can't instruct businesses to do something. We will reduce excess capacity through market forces”。也有人将“产能过剩”译为“surplus production capacity”。
产能过剩产业或行业可译为“bloated industries”或“bloated sectors”，如“to move faster with plans to shrink bloated industries including steel excess capacity”，又如“The government announced plans this year to slash the size of its state-owned steel and coal industries. But plans for other bloated sectors, including aluminum, glass and solar panels, have yet to be announced.”
★gas-fired power plant e.g. Gas-fired power plants are replacing coal for electricity generation, but not quickly enough to soak up all of the extra supply coming out of U.S. shale.
★global warming e.g. Against the backdrop of the global warming, the risks faced by our large engineering projects have increased; Global warming affects the safety and stability of these big projects, as well as their operations and economic effectiveness, technological standards and engineering methods; The U.N.'s Figueres said constructing a new international framework to curb global warming was going to be more complex than earlier thought.
★greenhouse gas emissions e.g. Experts say the national plans countries are now compiling for that deal are unlikely to add up to the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions needed to keep global warming to an internationally agreed limit of 2 degrees Celsius; China is making "strenuous efforts" and will inform U.N. officials by Tuesday of its proposed national contribution to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, in preparation for the international conference on climate change to be held in Paris this November and December.
★greenhouse gases e.g. This country, the world's biggest emitter of climate-changing greenhouse gases, has sought to shift increasingly to cleaner burning hydrocarbons such as natural gas and to renewable energy.
★haze e.g. Pollution covered large parts of the country's east and centre as measures to curb the toxic haze were ordered to be implemented.
★heatwaves e.g. Unprecedented heatwaves, superstorms, wildfires, rising sea levels -- climate change is delivering serious challenges for many communities across America and around the world.
★hot dry rock geothermal energy
★low-carbon economy e.g. Putting a price on carbon would be the foundation for unlocking investment in low-carbon economies "with hope for jobs and competitiveness - not a picture of sacrifice and of loss and giving things up"; Investing in homegrown innovation, including the development of new, clean-energy technologies, is a crucial part of the fight against climate change – and is key to keeping America on the leading edge of the world’s transition to a low-carbon economy.
★low-carbon future e.g. Last week, in Paris, nearly 200 countries came together to set the course for a low-carbon future.
★low-carbon growth e.g. We’ll continue to meet our climate finance commitments to help developing countries transition to low-carbon growth.
★low-carbon transformation e.g. Puts in place a long-term framework that incentivizes countries to ratchet down their emissions over time in a transparent way with a view to achieving a low-carbon transformation by the end of the century.
★meltdown-proof reactor e.g. With a meltdown-proof reactor, the choice between nuclear power and fossil fuels seems like a no-brainer.
★nuclear power e.g. Nuclear power prevented about 64 gigatons of carbon from being released into the atmosphere between 1971 and 2009; "We're still using the same nuclear power technology we used in the 1950s. A typical nuclear reactor in the U.S. only uses about 5% of its fuel. Tons of energy is wasted on keeping water inside the reactor pressurized".
★odd-even license plate system e.g. A red alert means around half the vehicles are removed from the roads with an odd-even license plate system enforced.
★PM2.5 e.g. The most harmful pollutant to human health is called PM 2.5, short for particle matter that's less than 2.5 microns in diameter. It's found in soot, smoke, and dust and lodges in the lungs causing long-term health problems like asthma and chronic lung disease; PM 2.5 starts to become a health problem when there is more than 35.5 micrograms of PM 2.5 per cubic meter (written like 35.5 µg/m3) of air, but WHO recommends that PM 2.5 shouldn't even exceed 10 µg/m3; Counts of PM2.5 -- harmful microscopic particles that penetrate deep into the lungs -- in one of the cities under red alert, were as high as 727 micrograms per cubic meter earlier Thursday. The reading is nearly 30 times the World Health Organization's recommended maximum exposure of 25 over a 24-hour period.
★pollution e.g. But healthy streams and wetlands can protect communities by trapping floodwaters, retaining moisture during droughts, recharging groundwater supplies, filtering pollution, and providing habitat for fish and wildlife.
★primary energy e.g. By 2035 coal accounts for less than 25% of primary energy, its lowest share since the industrial revolution; Renewables account for a quarter of global primary energy growth out to 2035, and over a third of the growth in global power generation.
★pro-environment e.g. “The Trans-Pacific Partnership（TTP）is the strongest, most pro-worker, pro-environment trade agreement in our history”.
★renewable energy e.g. This country, the world's biggest emitter of climate-changing greenhouse gases, has sought to shift increasingly to cleaner burning hydrocarbons such as natural gas and to renewable energy; The country adds more renewable power over the Outlook than the EU and US combined. BP said the biggest danger to the downside for its outlook is slower-than-expected gross-domestic-product growth; and to the upside it suggested the possibility of a quicker-than-projected adoption of renewable energy.
★solar photovoltaics e.g. We’ve seen major advances in solar photovoltaics, wind power, advanced batteries, energy-efficient lighting, and fuel cells – and the cost of solar energy systems has plummeted by over 50 percent in the past five years alone.
★solar power e.g. Renewable energy like solar power might seem like the most sustainable option, but progress in renewable energy is moving at a snail's pace; The Country has been also investing heavily in solar power. In 2013, it installed a record 12 gigawatts of solar power. In 2014 the country added another 12 gigawatts of solar power, narrowly missing its goal of 14 gigawatts.
★solar projects e.g. "In March, the City promised to install as much as 17.8 gigawatts of solar projects in 2015. By comparison, the US added 7.3 gigawatts of solar capacity in 2014."
★solar thermal power
★sustainable energy e.g. Sustainable energy is the form of energy obtained from non-exhaustible resources, such that the provision of this form of energy serves the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs.
★sustainable growth e.g. Dealing with climate change was necessary for the Country to put its economy on a more sustainable growth path, something the country's leadership has been aiming for.
★water purification system
★weather disasters e.g. The uptick in recent weather disasters such as floods, typhoons, droughts and heatwaves had a "big connection" to climate change.
★air pollution e.g. Last month, air pollution soared in northeast Country, reaching 50 times over the safety levels recommended by the World Health Organization; Last week, the World Health Organization reported that an estimated 8.2 million deaths a year are linked globally to air pollution; Others think that buying bottles of air isn't a practical solution to the Country's air pollution.
★air purifier e.g. Bosch, the German electronics group, recently began selling an in-car air purifier and a small air quality monitor developed in China for the Chinese market; High-end air purifiers such as the Blueair Pro XL cost 23,220 yuan, not much less than the average urban annual income of 28,844 yuan, according to government data.
★air quality e.g. "Coal use in China has actually dropped for the past two years in a row. Three factors play into that: a huge push for more renewable capacity; the structural change in China’s economy; and the government’s concentration on improving the air quality".
★air quality index
★air quality monitor e.g. Origins Technology, a Beijing start-up, sold out of its 499 yuan Laser Egg handheld air quality monitors during this month’s smog wave. There is now a waitlist for the product.
★bottled water e.g. Imports of bottled water are up sharply in volume terms, rising from 36 million litres two years ago to 46 million litres in the first 10 months of this year, according to Chinese customs.
★carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)
★carbon emissions e.g. the U.S. and countries around the globe have taken historic steps to curb carbon emission; Partners have avoided 5.8 million metric tons of carbon emissions — doing their part in the fight against climate change.
★carbon markets e.g. The EU and China pledged to step up their cooperation on climate research and carbon markets, which provide financial incentives to reduce carbon emissions; The EU launched its Emissions Trading System in 2005 and China has created regional carbon markets, with the ambition of creating a nationwide system.
★carbon pollution e.g. In a historic move, the U.S. and China came together and announced new targets to reduce carbon pollution；We must continue investing in these kinds of innovations if we are to maintain our leadership in reducing carbon pollution while also growing the economy.
★carbon pricing e.g. Every country will need to manage an orderly transition to low-carbon growth and resilient development," she said, adding that carbon pricing would be one necessary element of that transition.
★carbon-heavy energy supply
★clean energy e.g. For the first time in history, we have a chance to put in place a global climate agreement that will spur countries to take ambitious action that will reduce carbon pollution, support clean energy, and ensure we deliver a planet that is worthy of future generations; Today’s announcements will help ensure that even more American-made clean energy technologies can make the leap from an idea, to the laboratory, to the global marketplace.
★clean water e.g. Major economic sectors -- from manufacturing and energy production to agriculture, food service, tourism, and recreation -- depend on clean water to function and flourish. Without clean water, business grinds to a halt -- a reality too many local small business owners faced in Toledo last year when drinking water became contaminated for several days; Clean water is vital to our health; Our economy depends on clean water; Clean water helps farms thrive; Clear protections mean cleaner water.
★climate change e.g. Today, nations of the world have come together to announce a historic achievement: the most ambitious global agreement to combat climate change; No country is immune from the consequences of climate change, and no country can act alone; Climate change threatens some of the country's most important infrastructure projects, the top meteorologist warned in a state newspaper, adding the country's rate of warming was higher than the global average; Climate change is a lever which can push our country's economic transformation; Impacts from climate change like more intense droughts, storms, fires, and floods -- not to mention warmer temperatures and sea level rise -- threaten our water supplies; Around the world, climate change increases the risk of instability and conflict. Rising seas are already swallowing low-lying lands, from Bangladesh to Pacific islands, forcing people from their homes.... Elsewhere, more intense droughts will exacerbate shortages of water and food, increase competition for resources, and create the potential for mass migrations and new tensions.
★climate resilient investment
★climate targets e.g. China, Brazil, and more than 180 countries representing nearly 95% of global emissions have announced climate targets, or Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs); For the first time, all countries commit to putting forward successive and ambitious, nationally determined climate targets and reporting on their progress towards them using a rigorous, standardized process of review.
★CO2 emissions e.g. Coal accounts for about 60 percent of the country's CO2 emissions, which are causing massive health problems because of the smog they generate.
★coal-burning power plant
★decarbonize e.g. A decarbonized world is now irreversible, irrefutable; Decarbonization refers to shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and improving energy efficiency, in order to cut planet-warming emissions to a net zero; To decarbonize economies, we will need to begin with extraordinary ambition at the end of this year.
★disaster prevention and mitigation
★emission reduction e.g. In a joint announcement with the United States last year, the country said it would aim to peak its fast-rising emissions "around" 2030, and the United States said it would seek to cut emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025; All the G7 countries have now put forward our post-2020 targets for reducing carbon emissions, and we’ll continue to urge other significant emitters to do so as well.
★emission trading e.g. The World Bank said in a report that emission trading schemes were worth an estimated $34 billion on April 1, up from $32 billion in 2014, while the value of carbon taxes around the world amounted to about $14 billion.
★energy consumption e.g. Leaders from schools, universities, hospitals, industry, cities, towns, commercial real estate, hotels, food service — across tens of thousands of buildings — are reducing energy consumption by more than 2 percent per year — right on target for 20 percent.
★energy demand e.g. EU energy demand in 2035 is back to where it was 50 years earlier, despite the economy being almost 150% bigger.
★energy efficiency e.g. The more work we did on this issue, the clearer it became that making buildings, plants and homes more energy efficient was a triple win — a win for jobs and economic growth; a win for businesses’ operating costs and bottom lines; and a win for our effort to reduce carbon emissions and fight climate change.
★energy savings e.g. We are on track to meet our energy savings goal; Using water more efficiently results in lower operating costs, a more reliable water supply, and improved water quality. It also takes energy to treat and transport water, so cutting water use saves energy; In the next year, each recruit another organization to set the same aggressive goal of 20 percent energy savings — or more.
“中国矿业大学”的官方正式英文名称为“China University of Mining and Technology”，而不是“China Mining University”；
另外，美国有些大学设有若干分校，这里的“分校”不是按其字面翻成“Branch School”，而是以其所在城镇的地名直接代表“分校”，例如，“加利福尼亚大学伯克利分校”英文名称为“University of California, Berkeley” (UC Berkeley)；“加利福尼亚大学洛杉矶分校”为 “University of California, Los Angeles” (UCLA)”。
★Supply-side theory is an economic theory holding that bolstering an economy's ability to supply more goods is the most effective way to stimulate economic growth.
★Supply-side economics is a macroeconomic theory which argues that economic growth can be most effectively created by investing in capital, and by lowering barriers on the production of goods and services. According to supply-side economics, consumers will then benefit from a greater supply of goods and services at lower prices; furthermore, the investment and expansion of businesses will increase the demand for employees and therefore create jobs. Typical policy recommendations of supply-side economists are lower marginal tax rates and less government regulation.
★Cutting housing inventories, tackling debt overhang, eliminating superfluous industrial capacity, cutting business costs, streamlining bureaucracy, urbanization and abandoning the one-child policy are all examples of supply-side reforms.
★The country's top leaders are likely to introduce all-round "supply-side reform" at the annual Central Economic Work Conference, which began on Friday (March 4th2016) in Beijing.
★We will expand aggregate demand as appropriate, and focus on structural reforms. We will press ahead with supply-side structural reform.
在这个“大众创业，万众创新”（mass entrepreneurship and innovation）时代，“创新驱动发展”（innovation-driven development, that is, development driven by innovation）是一条在媒体最流行、出现频次最高的词组。笔者近几个月浏览了若干相关英文文章，关注到了“-driven”之广泛应用。下面是笔者从英文媒体看到的“-driven”有关的词组及例句，在此与读者分享。
★innovation-driven development strategy e.g. China will continue to implement the strategy of innovation-driven development and promote mass entrepreneurship and innovation（大众创业，万众创新）, said a statement issued Monday after the Central Economic Work Conference.
★clean energy-driven economic development
★culture-driven economy e.g. Chinese and Italian companies celebrate 45 years of culture-driven economic ties.
★digital economy-driven growth e.g. The digital economy has become the most powerful engine to drive China's economic development.
★domestic demand and consumption-driven development
★innovation- and consumption- driven development pattern
★internet+-driven e-commerce economy
★investment- and export-driven development model
★investment- and export-driven model e.g As the country is undergoing an upgrade of its development pattern from an investment- and export-driven model to one driven by innovation and consumption, China has announced a range of measures for emerging businesses, including financial support, supporting infrastructure and administrative assistance.
★IT-driven economic development
★new growth engines e.g. Reform and innovation will inspire creativity and new growth engines while facilitating upgrading in traditional industries and growth in emerging ones, said the statement.
★reform and innovation-driven economic development
又如，“减排”要翻成“emission reduction”；“碳排放”需翻成“carbon emissions”（e.g. the United States said it would seek to cut emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025; All the G7 countries have now put forward our post-2020 targets for reducing carbon emissions, and we’ll continue to urge other significant emitters to do so as well.）；“防灾减灾”的地道翻译应为“disaster prevention and mitigation”。
又如，将“无碳世界”和“无碳经济”分别翻成“no-carbon world”和“no-carbon economy”也没有什么大错，但其最地道的翻译应分别是“decarbonized world”和“decarbonized economy”(e.g. A decarbonized world is now irreversible, irrefutable; Decarbonization refers to shifting from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources, and improving energy efficiency, in order to cut planet-warming emissions to a net zero; To decarbonize economies, we will need to begin with extraordinary ambition at the end of this year)。
《习近平谈治国理政》是一本颇具影响的书，已翻译成多种语言在全球发行。我留意到该书的英文版本将“治国理政”译为“Governance of China”，非常简练，也十分得体。
★Inventory levels of unsold housing stock have climbed to as high as 77 months of sales in “Tier 3” cities such as ..., and even fifteen months’ worth in Tier 1 cities such as ... and ..., sparking reports of the country's “ghost cities.”
在写作英文论文时，如果一个句子是以“数目”开头，这个“数目”应以“全写”形式出现（If we start a sentence with a number we should write out the number），也就是说，阿拉伯数字一般不应直接放在一句话的开头，例如，“40 sets of 3D points distribution face model data selected randomly from a monolayer face sample library are taken as the face samples of feature points which will be located”是不正确的。这句话开头的数目40应“全写” 为Forty，也就是说“Forty sets of 3D points distribution face model data selected randomly from a monolayer face sample library are taken as the face samples of feature points which will be located”是正确的。
★Fifty countries sign up to China-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, in diplomatic victory for Beijing.
★Six states have enacted paid sick days or paid family leave. Seventeen states, and more than two dozen cities and counties, have raised their minimum wage.... All told, 34 states have increased funding for preschool.
★Forty-six percent of respondents disapproved of their government's response to the country’s actions at the shoal, higher than 32 percent last year and 27 percent in 2013.
★Forty-nine percent in the most recent survey, which was carried out over four days in March, said they approved of government response.
★Representatives from 57 countries have attended a signing ceremony in Beijing for the founding of the new Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank.
★The changes observed in the mechanical properties of polymers from plasticizers are similar to the reductions in the mechanical properties of coal resulting from CO2 adsorption. This suggests that the reductions in stiffness and strength of CO2 saturated coal may be related to the interaction of coal and CO2 as a plasticizer.
★Some automated core scanners have the capacity to maintain to constant distance between the detector and the sample surface during measurement, which can reduce this effect.
★The experimental data showed that the elastic modulus of coal can decrease up to 19% when CO2 is injected into coal specimens and the strength of coal can be reduced by 20%.
★Total trade in 2014 rose just 3.4 percent from the year before, far below authorities' aim of about 7.5 percent and the third consecutive year the official target has been missed.
★GDP expanded an annual 7.3 percent in the third quarter, the slowest since the height of the global financial crisis in early 2009.
★For December alone, the trade surplus soared 93.5 percent year-on-year to $49.6 billion, as exports increased 9.7 percent to $227.5 billion and imports fell 2.4 percent to $177.9 billion, Customs said.
★Shares in Li Ka-shing's firms soar on re-structuring plan.
★Shares of property giant Cheung Kong Holdings, and investment holding firm Hutchison Whampoa, surged on Monday in Hong Kong after a restructuring announcement.
★Meanwhile Hutchison Whampoa's shares had surged more than 12%.
★European stock markets inched higher on Monday, putting aside concerns over Greece that unsettled the euro after Chinese stocks rallied almost 5 percent.
★Cheung Kong's shares were up in Hong Kong as much as 14% in afternoon trading on Monday.
★The country’s stocks plummet 8% as regulators prick stock bubble.
★The Shanghai Composite Index was down 8.3 percent at 3,096.64, giving investors a wild ride after a year in which China's stock market marched higher despite slowing economic growth. For the past three months, the index is still up 32 percent. Its dive rubbed off on Hong Kong where the Hang Seng was off 2.1 percent at 23,605.00. Japan's Nikkei 225 rose 0.9 percent to 17,014.29 and South Korea's Kospi gained 0.8 percent to 1,902.62. Australia's S&P/ASX 200 rose 0.2 percent to 5,309.10. Shares were also higher in Taiwan, New Zealand and Southeast Asia.
★Hong Kong-based mid-sized Reorient Group (376.Hong Kong) jumped 177% at the open to trade at 25 Hong Kong dollars this morning.
★All of Alibaba-controlled subsidiaries listed in Hong Kong have done very well this year, because of investors’ confidence in the Ali-name. Intime Retail (1833.Hong Kong) has jumped 138%, Alibaba Health (241.Hong Kong) gained 108%, Alibaba Pictures (1060.Hong Kong) rose 137%.
★Rescuers pulled at least three people from the wreckage of a capsized Chinese cruise ship Tuesday as fears mounted for the more than 400 people still missing after the boat sank in a storm.
★The outbreak of the MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome) virus has fuelled growing public alarm, and online retailers reported a 700 percent surge in sales of face masks over the weekend.
★He had quickly climbed the wealth ranks in China as the company stock soared -- shares surged 625% over the past year prior to the crash.
★It also provoked local resentment, as wealthy immigrants bid up property prices in places like Vancouver.
★Health care prices have risen at the slowest rate in nearly 50 years.
★As medical costs go up, that need grows more pressing. Now, for the first time, we have not just the need but the will to get this job done.”
★Wages for American workers continue to rise. And since I took office, the United States has cut our deficit by two-thirds.
★That is little changed from a preliminary reading of 49.1, and up a touch from April's 48.9.
★Factory output also shrank for the first time this year as the sub-index slipped under 50.
★A solid fall in new export work contributed to fewer new orders, which in turn led to the first contraction of output in 2015 so far.
★The PMI showed factory employment shrank in May for the 18th straight month, even though the pace of contraction eased from the rates seen in March and April.
★That has fueled speculation that the country's central bank, which has cut interest rates three times in six months, is likely to lower rates again this year.
★Macau's gambling revenue falls 37 percent in May.
★Gambling revenue in the Chinese territory of Macau plummeted 37 percent in May, marking one year of consecutive declines as wealthy gamblers continued to steer clear of the country's only legal casino hub.
★Gambling revenue fell to 20.3 billion patacas ($2.5 billion) in May from 32.4 billion patacas a year earlier, showed data released by the Macau government on Monday. Analysts were expecting a decline of around 38 percent.
★Oil prices dipped about 0.7 percent to $65.12.
★On Seoul stock markets, share prices of some pharmaceutical firms jumped by the daily limit of 15 percent on Tuesday, while those of airline and travel operators took a dive.
★Stock in the company plummeted by 47% in a single hour of trading in late May.
★His stake dropped by as much as $15 billion in value, according to data compiled by CNNMoney.
★Worryingly for the local governments, land purchased by property developers slumped by over 30 percent in the first two months of 2015.
★South Korea's outbreak of the potentially deadly MERS virus on Thursday forced the central bank to cut its key interest rate to ward off greater economic damage, as retailers report a slump in business.
★Businesses including shopping malls, restaurants and cinemas have reported a sharp drop in sales as people shun public venues with large crowds.
★Funding for this type of work (basic research) has fallen significantly over the past 50 years, according to a recent report out of MIT. Here's a chart showing the drop in US funding for basic research from 1968 to 2015:....
★Today, the number of seniors in poverty has fallen dramatically.... And, by the way, since the Affordable Care Act was signed into law, the uninsured rate for all Americans has fallen by about one-third.
★For the range of net normal stresses and suction states investigated, theincreasein residual shear strength withincreasingsuction was found to be virtually linear for SM soil, but significantly nonlinear for SC-SM soil.
★The internal reaction force is slightlyincreasedup to 60kN, but more or less contact.
★With continued burial and temperatureincrease, thermogenic gas will eventually be generated.
★It has generally been observed that coal rankincreasestowards the dome structure.
★The rate of down holeincreasein Romaxis highest in Well-A (0.034/100 m). Well-B has a lower rate of down holeincrease(0.012/100 m) while in Well-C the rate is extremely low (0.008/100 m), although in the latter drill hole it is likely there is not enough data to determine an accurate rate.
★However, samples from Well-A have a clear relationship between depth anddecreasingH/C and O/C atomic ratios.
★Permeability of coalsincreasesas a result of gas desorption and pressure depletion during production.
★The regulations making it more difficult for courts to reject lawsuits took effect May 1, leading to anincreasein cases nationwide last month of 29 percent compared with same period last year, to just over 1 million cases, according to the Supreme People's Court.
★Exportsincreased6.1 percent to $2.34 trillion in 2014, while imports rose 0.4 percent to $1.96 trillion, the General Administration of Customs said on its website. That translated into a trade surplus of $382.46 billion, the highest ever and a 47.2 percentincreaseon 2013.
★According to the McKinsey Global Institute, property pricesincreasedby 60 percent from 2008 to August 2014 in forty Chinese cities, with residential property prices in prime locations in Shanghai now only about 10 percent below levels in New York and Paris.
★seasonal fluctuations in embankment pore water pressures
★shear strength parameters e.g. In the second phase of the simulation, the shear strength parameters (c,f) were input into the model.
★shortcomings e.g. Despite the shortcomings in site data from a modelers' perspective, the situation was typical of current instrumentation practice for a problem slope.
★significantly e.g. These failures were sufficiently shallow that they did not significantly affect the overall stability of the slope.
★simulate e.g. Furthermore, a parametric study was conducted on the permeability to get the best fit between recorded and simulated data.
★site walkover survey
★slightly e.g. There was a drop in water levels with the simulation but this occurred slightly before the recorded drop and the magnitude was approximately half of that recorded. The water levels within the simulation recovered at approximately the same time as the recorded water levels but the water levels peaked at just below the previous high at slightly under 6 m AOD; "This showed that for the latter half of the simulation there was no significant increase in rainfall; there was actually a slight decrease."
★slope material properties e.g. The dynamic interaction between falling blocks and slope of the CRSP is calculated by empirically driven functions incorporating velocity, friction and slope material properties.
★slope stability analysis
★slope stability assessments e.g. The RS unit is suitable for testing both fully-softened shear strength and residual shear strength parameters that can be used for slope stability assessments of various scenarios.
★slope value e.g. Median, minimum, and maximum slope values calculated from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation data by Verdian et al. (2007) are used in tests of the model.
★soil bearing capacity e.g. Analysis of slopes, embankments, and soil bearing capacity, on the other hand, requires good estimations of shear strength from peak to residual.
★soil stiffness e.g. Calculation of foundation settlement, for instance, requires a good estimation of soil stiffness at relatively small strains.
★soil water characteristic curve e.g. There was limited information regarding the soil water characteristic curve of the materials.
★steep slope e.g. The same was true for the steep slope entering the river.
★steep topographic slope e.g. Areas of steep topographic slope are often associated with active faulting and hence, likely areas of strong ground shaking.
★spatial distribution e.g. The spatial distribution of seismically induced landslides is dependent on certain physical characteristics of the area in which they occur.
★study area e.g. The study area is located along route 5 in the boroughs of Fort Lee and Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ where high level of cliff, 10 to 27 m high, exists along the road as shown in Fig.1; The paper discusses a fundamental geology and geomechanics of the study area first and then statistical rockfall analysis using Colorado Rock Fall Simulation Program has been performed to estimate the critical impact condition and the capacity of rockfall barrier system required. Finally, a series of three dimensional dynamic finite element analyes is performed to provide additional verification of the design criterion made by CRSP analysis and to suggest the detailed design parameters to accommodate specific field conditions.
★summarize e.g. The realistic and modeled root depth distributions are summarized in Fig.11 and vegetation properties are summarized in Table 3.
★swell-induced soil movements e.g. The developed correlations, along with the existing models, were then used to predict vertical soil swell movements of four case studies where swell-induced soil movements were monitored.
★tailings e.g. Extraction of the targeted resource results in the concurrent production of a significant volume of waste material, including tailings, which are mixtures of crushed rock and processing fluids from mills, washeries or concentrators that remain after the extraction of economic metals, minerals, mineral fuels or coal; The volume of tailings is normally far in excess of the liberated resource, and the tailings often contain potentially hazardous contaminants; A priority for a reasonable and responsible mining organization must be to proactively isolate the tailings so as to forestall them from entering groundwaters, rivers, lakes and the wind.
★threshold e.g. For example, if we define 20% probability of a landslide to be the threshold, any probability equal to or greater than 20% will then be defined as a landslide prediction; By evaluating the percentage of true positives and true negatives from a model, we can decide upon the optimum-probability threshold for classification as a landslide prediction; this optimum value is in turn dependent upon the balance between high values of true positives and true negatives with low values of false positives and false negatives.
★top of the slope
★unit weight data
★unsaturated hydrological properties
★unsaturated soils e.g. To date, however, there is very limited experimental evidence of unsaturated soil behavior under large deformations, and the corresponding residual shear strength properties, while the soil is being subjected to controlled-suction states.
★value e.g. Therefore low CTI values result from higher slope values and small drainage areas, whereas high CTI values result from lower slope values and larger drainage areas. Note that this value does not consider wetness contributed from the climate of an area, but is purely dependent on the topographic influence on wetness.
★water regime e.g. From these preliminary analyses it could be seen that the water regime within the slope was governed by more than the surface processes investigated; therefore, a fully coupled hydromechanical model of the slope was run to see if any light could be shed on the pore water pressure regime.
★water table e.g. The report stated that this water table rise occurred as a result of heavy rainfall.
★landslide distribution e.g. Empirical studies suggest that the bedrock lithology, slope, seismic intensity, topographical amplification of ground motion, fracture systems in the underlying bedrock, groundwater conditions, and also the distribution of pre existing landslides all have some impact on the landslide distribution, among factors.
★landslide inventories e.g. In order to apply this approach to a global data set, we use multiple landslide inventories to calibrate the model. Using the model formula previously determined (using the Wenchuan earthquake data), we use the four datasets discussed in Section 1.3.1 in our global database to determine the coefficients for the global model.
★landslide probability model e.g. The resulting database is used to build a predicative model of the probability of landslide occurrence.
★landslide observation e.g. Cells are classified as landslides if any portion of that grid cell contains a landslide observation, in order to easily incorporate binary observations into the logistic regression.
★linearly e.g. In order to determine if such an increase in water levels could be the cause of increased down slope movement the bottom head boundary condition of both the Shetran and Flac-tp model was increased linearly by 0 to 4 m over the length of the lower slope and linearly by 4 to 5 m over the length of the upper slope.
★low angle failure
★macroscopic indicators e.g. Unsaturated residual shear strength can also be used as a macroscopic indicator of the nature of micro-structural changes experienced by the soils when subjected to drying.
★mechanical landslide modeling e.g. These data were originally calculated for the purpose of mechanical landslide modeling, and are used here as a statistical constraint on landslide susceptibility.
★mechanism e.g. The output pore water pressure were coupled to a mechanical analysis using the Flac-tp flow program in an attempt to distinguish the mechanisms active within the slope which were likely to produce the recorded pore water pressure.
★medium to low compressibility
★mine tailings dams e.g. This paper reviews these factors, covering the characteristics, types and magnitudes, environmental impacts, and remediation of mine tailings dam failures.
★minimal e.g. The brown sand and gravel at depth were also omitted from the model as their effects on the surface failure were assumed to be minimal.
★minimum e.g. This conceptual model allowed the deformation of elements within the slope to be kept to a minimum.
★moisture content e.g. We use the Compound Topographic Index (CTI) to represent moisture content of the area.
★movement e.g. At this time the measured displacement showed a sharp up slope movement followed by a steady but increasing down slope movement; …when a sudden down slope movement was measured; the nature of the event was uncertain yet it could be seen that the increase in down slope movement occurred after the water level increase.
★null hypothesis e.g. We also use the p-values (defined as the probability of finding a test statistic value as great as the observed test statistic value, assuming that the null hypothesis is true) in order to assess the significance of each regression coefficient. In this case, the null hypothesis is that the regression coefficient is equal to zero. We reject the null hypothesis if the p-value is less than the significance value (α) we choose; here, we useα=0.001, corresponding to a 99% confidence level. Therefore if p<α, we reject the null hypothesis, and thereby assume that the regression coefficient is not equal to zero, and equals the computed value (Peng et al., 2002).
★numerical studies e.g. Those numerical studies mentioned above successfully validated the usage of supplemental means for the full scale tests and also contributed to develop and optimize new type of rockfall barrier system effectively. However, very little research has been devoted to the more practical analysis of the optimal rockfall barrier system over the various unfavorable impact conditions which can usually happen in actual field conditions.
★peak ground acceleration e.g. Estimates of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and peak ground velocity (PGV) for each event are adapted from the USGS Shakemap Atlas 2.0 (Garcia et al., 2012)
★peak ground velocity
★peak values of movement
★periodic surface erosion
★periodic walkover surveys
★perspective e.g. Despite the shortcomings in site data from a modelers' perspective, the situation was typical of current instrumentation practice for a problem slope.
★phreatic surface e.g. The slope, however, was observed to remain largely saturated for most of the year with a phreatic surface near or at the surface.
★pore pressure fluctuations
★pore pressure transfer
★pore pressure variations
★pore water pressure
★predictor variables e.g. We begin modeling by assessing qualitative relationships within the data, moving forward by using logistic regression as a statistical method for establishing a functional form between the predictor variables and the outcomes (Figure 3). We iterate over combinations of predictor variables and outcomes within the model, focusing first on one training event (Wenchuan, China), with the ultimate goal of expanding the analysis to global landslide datasets.
★reference grid point e.g. Due to the different grids of the Flac-tv flow model and the Shetran model there was no reference grid point, for which readings could be taken, at the exact same depth for both models. The closest similar reference points were at 1.91m depth for the Flac-tv flow model and 1.5 m depth for the Shetran model.
★reliability e.g. Full scale rockfall tests to assess the reliability of the structure and also to investigate the interactions of the rockfall catchfence subjected to the impacts were carried out by Peila et al.
★rockfall barrier system e.g. Since the impact response of the rockfall catchfence has complicated phenomena caused by materials elastic and plastic behaviors of each member (i.e. steel post, nets and cables, etc.) and also influenced by various factors; such as impact angle, impact energy, dimension of block, strength of each member, mechanical stiffness of rockfall catchfence, etc., many researchers have devoted efforts to make a more comprehensive understanding of various facets of rockfall barrier system.
★comparison e.g. At BH104 the displacement increased and there was an improved comparison with the observed data. At location BH104 there was also a similar good comparison with the observed data.
★complex pore pressure distribution
★conceptual model e.g. A simplified conceptual model was developed in which the levels of the horizons were simplified in order to preserve element geometry with the Flat-tp flow program.
★constant e.g. This movement was subsequently recovered and the comparison is recovered also until January 2008, where the measured displacement rate increased, whereas the calculated rate remains constant. The levels of measured and calculated head are fairly constant throughout the period monitored.
★constructed and natural slopes
★contributor to the instability
★coupled hydro-mechanical model
★coupled unsaturated mechanical behavior
★crest of the slope
★discuss e.g. This is due to the water level being at the surface as discussed earlier; as discussed previously…
★dynamic discrete numerical analyses e.g. However, these limitations of the full scale tests have been partly resolved by dynamic discrete numerical analyses recently.
★earthquake magnitude e.g. The estimated distribution of shaking is in turn dependent on earthquake magnitude, fault location, and ground motion predication equations, as constrained by observed peak ground motion and intensity data.
★earthquake-triggered landslides e.g. Ultimately, the success of this model depends on its ability to correctly predict locations of earthquake-triggered landslides.
★elastic-plastic deformation e.g. As opposed to rigid structures such as rocksheds and earthfill embankments, the rockfall catchfence is performed by dissipating impact energy through the elastic-plastic deformation in conjunction with energy dissipators.
★Figure, Fig., e.g. It can be seen from Fig.12 that…; as shown in Fig.12; it seemed from this chart that…; the Sheltran simulation was supported by the rainfall data, which is also shown in Fig.12; the simulated water levels at location BH105 are plotted against the recorded water levels in Fig.13; Fig.14 shows the pore pressure variation within the made ground of the lower slope for both models after the pore pressure transfer.
★fit e.g. A parametric study conducted on the stiffness of the clay materials to get the best fit with the recorded displacement.
★fixed pore water pressure e.g. The model was then run with fixed pore water pressure to establish the mechanical equilibrium under self weight to be reached.
★ground motion distribution e.g. We assume that the ShakeMap software provides a reasonably accurate estimation of the ground motion distribution for each earthquake, and the uncertainty in these calculation is inherently part of the uncertainty in the landslide model.
★hydro-mechanical model 流体力学模型 e.g. A more sophisticated coupled hydro-mechanical model based on Shetran and Flac-tp flow was used to determine the effect of fluctuations of pore pressures, rainfall and mechanical strains on slip movement.
★impact angles e.g. Fig.11 shows the results of frequency analysis for kinetic energy, impact velocity, bounce height and impact angle at the given analysis point of Sta. 3 + 38 m; The impact angles of the group A are widely distributed from 5°to 55°, whereas those of the group B range from 45°to 65°.
★impact energy e.g. …to estimate the direct relations between impact angles and impact energies.
★Growth and specialization in an enlarged Europe: is a virtuous circle possible?
★A Virtuous Cycle in the Amazon: Reducing Mercury Exposure from Fish Consumption Requires Sustainable Agriculture
★We show how, with the right mix of policies, these same feedbacks can become virtuous cycles that lead to higher employee, customer satisfaction and additional resources to invest in still greater service quality improvement.
★... because as we get economies of scale, and demand for solar and wind and other renewable energies grows, obviously that can help drive down the overall price, make it that much for efficient, and we start getting avirtuous cyclethat is good for the economy and creates jobs here in America.
★Based on the hypothesis that a vicious cycle of dental fear exists, whereby the consequences of fear tend to maintain that fear, the relationship between dental fear, self-reported oral health status and the use of dental services was explored.
★Moreover, results show that a bail-in of 8 % of total bank balance sheet can be really effective in breaking the vicious circle and preventing contagion between banks and public finances.
★The vicious cycle of lettuce corky root disease: effects of farming system, nitrogen fertilizer and herbicide
★As Americans, we believe there’s nothing wrong with making a profit. But there is something wrong with making that profit by trapping hard-working men and women in avicious cycleof debt.
★If you’re making that profit by trapping hardworking Americans into avicious cycleof debt, you’ve got to find a new business model.
在论文写作中，ratio也是一个非常“实用”的单词，其汉语翻译是比，比率[the relation between two similar magnitudes with respect to the number of times the first contains the second, or a relationship between two numbers of the same kind (e.g., objects, persons, students, spoonfuls, units of whatever identical dimension), e.g. "the ratio of a to b, expressed as a:b or a/b."]， 比例（proportional relation, rate, e.g. "the ratio between acceptances and rejections."）等，例如，“The best-fit NFe values vary somewhat between the synthetic allophane samples, but do not vary systematically with the Al:Si ratio.”从下面的几则实例中我们可看到ratio的各种用法。
★Harder (1976, 1978) also noted that the formation of Fe-rich clay minerals was promoted by synthesis at pH>7, and that nontronite formed in solutions with Fe:Si between 1:10 and 1:3.
★The widely used olivine + pyroxene → serpentine (ol + px → srp) reaction is quantitatively inconsistent with observed ratios of olivine to pyroxene and olivine to serpentine in CM carbonaceous chondrites.
★A fundamental challenge in defining the allophane structure is that allophane range in composition from high-Al types, with Al:Si close to 2, to high-Si types, with Al:Si near 0.5. An imogolite-like nanoball allophane structure modeled by Creton et al. (2008a) has an Al:Si ratio of 2:1, with Si atoms in individual orthosilicate units bonded to a rolled octahedral Al sheet. If higher-Si allophanes form similar nanoballls, the structure must be modified to accommodate considerably more Si.
With是一个普通介词，但它的功能之强大有时超出了我们的“想象”。在图书馆学科服务工作中，笔者阅读了大量英文文献，特别是英美学者发表在世界顶级学术期刊上的论文，发现英美学者在撰写论文时，使用With的频次远远高于我们中国的学者。例如，英美学者会把我们中国学者的“Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in-situ stresses are high”换个方式表达成“ Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines with the weak surrounding rock strata and coal seams and the high in-situ stresses”；又如，如果把“Indonesia is currently the largest exporter of thermal coal in the world, which country’s total coal production was over 350 million tons in 2011”改成“Indonesia is currently the largest exporter of thermal coal in the world, with total coal production of over 350 million tons in 2011”，句子似乎更紧凑了；再如，“This is also true under conditions such as the anthracite field, where coal seams arehighly pitching”可改成“This is also true under conditions such as the anthracite field withhighly-pitched coal seams”。不难看出，with在这里发挥了非常重要的作用。
★The bulk of the increase is from low cost surface mining operations in coal seams ranging from 15.2 to 30.5m thick with comparatively shallow overburden.
★This optimum value is in turn dependent upon the balance between high values of true positives and true negatives with low values of false positives and false negatives.
★Variation of elastic modulus and strength with CO2injection time….
★Such units are able to evaluate the variation along a core in the concentration of multiple elements, with detection limits in the ppm range depending on the element concerned.
★The whole purpose was to standardize wet oxidation potential methods with a variety of coals.
★With time, allophane transforms to more ordered clay minerals, but the end products of this transformation are dependent upon temperature, oxidation state, and the chemical composition of the solution.
★In a sample with 1 mol.% of Al replaced by Fe, if Fe is randomly distributed, most Fe atoms should be surrounded by Al atoms and should have no Fe next neighbors.
★Additional experiment, not described here, indicated no systematic change in NFe with sample age up to 2 y.
★The AIC value decreases with better model fit, but increases with complexity of the model.
★Moisture content decreases significantly with depth in some boreholes.
★Both firms fall under the Cheung Kong Group, a leading multi-national conglomerate with operations in more than 50 countries.
由于学科服务工作需要，笔者最近浏览了Estimation of joint trace length probability distribution function in igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks（火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩节理迹长概率分布函数估计）（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2353-2361），Coal Mine Roadway Stability in Soft Rock: A Case Study（煤矿软岩巷道稳定性实例研究）（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, November 2014, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 2225-2238），Mine Overburden Dump Failure: A Case Study[矿山覆排土（石）场破坏实例研究]（Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 297-309），Assessments of Strength Anisotropy and Deformation Behavior of Banded Amphibolite Rocks（带状闪石强度各向异性及变形特征估算）（Geotechnical and Geological Engineering, April 2014, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 429-438），In-situ Rock Spalling Strength near Excavation Boundaries（开挖边界附近现场岩石剥落强度）（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, March 2014, Volume 47, Issue 2, pp 659-675），Relationship Between Pre-failure and Post-failure Mechanical Properties of Rock Material of Different Origin（不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性关系）（Rock Mechanics and Rock Engineering, February 2014），Coal waste management practices in the USA: an overview[美国煤渣（煤矸石等）管理实践综述]（International Journal of Coal Science & Technology, June 2014, Volume 1, Issue 2, pp 163-176），Overview and modeling of mechanical and thermomechanical impact of underground coal gasification exploitation（地下矿井煤气化开发的力学与热力学影响之回顾与模拟）（Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, March 2014），Poromechanics of adsorption-induced swelling in microporous materials: a new poromechanical model taking into account strain effects on adsorption（微孔材料吸附引起的膨胀孔隙介质力学：考虑应变对吸附影响的新孔隙介质力学模型）（Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, May 2014）等英文文献，并对有关主要术语（词汇）与例句进行了收集与整理，供撰写相关主题英文论文的作者参考。
★angle e.g. Under uniaxial test, the banded amphibolite has a U-shaped anisotropy with maximum strength at β = 90° and minimum strength is obtained when β = 30°.
★back analysis e.g. These findings were supported by back-analysis of case histories where failure had been carefully documented, using either Kirsch’s solution (with approximated circular tunnel geometry and hence σ max = 3σ 1 −σ 3) or simplified numerical stress modeling (with a smooth tunnel wall boundary) to approximate the maximum tangential stress σ max at the excavation boundary; This paper back analyse material properties and investigates the probable mechanism of this OB failure.
★banded amphibolite 带状闪石
★banded amphibolite rocks e.g. However, far too little attention has been paid to banded amphibolite rocks. This study aim to evaluate strength and deformation anisotropy behavior of banded amphibolite rocks.
★behavior of structures e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.
★coal waste disposal facility e.g. The primary purpose of a coal waste disposal facility is to dispose of unusable waste materials from mining.
★coal waste impoundments e.g. However, at some sites coal waste impoundments serve to provide water storage capacity for processing and flood attenuation.
★compression and shear waves
★continuum numerical methods e.g. Well established tools including limiting equilibrium and continuum numerical methods have been used to understand and identify the failure kinematics of this dump.
★deformation e.g. Detailed numerical modeling was conducted to evaluate the roadway stability and deformation under different roof support scenarios.
★drop modulus e.g. It was found that the drop modulus D pf increases with rock strength σ ci, following a power (幂) function with an approximate power of two.
★dynamic mechanical properties e.g. The results obtained have shown that the dynamic mechanical properties of amphibolite(闪石) rocks have different values concerning banding plane.
★earth and rock embankments and dams e.g. These support all aspects of the regulatory environment including the design and construction of earth and rock embankments and dams, as well as a wide variety of waste disposal structures.
★elastic deformation test e.g. The results of elastic deformation test show that there is no clear dependence on microstructures characteristics of subtype-amphibolite rocks that controlling modulus “shape-anisotropy”.
★excavation boundaries e.g. In this article, it is suggested that these approaches ignore one of the most important factors, the irregularity of the excavation boundary, when interpreting the in-situ rock strength.
★exponential 指数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic (对数) and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★exponential trend e.g. With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio.
★failure of an out-of-pit OB dump e.g. Recently, the failure of an out-of-pit OB dump at an Indian Colliery was reported.
★failure of open pit dumps e.g. Various literatures have reported the failure of open pit dumps and the consequences in loss of life, production and impact on neighboring amenities .
★geometry properties e.g. Joint trace length is one of the most difficult properties to measure accurately, but it may be possible to record other geometrical properties of exposed joints accurately.
★geometry properties of joints
★goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests e.g. Consequently, goodness-of-fit (GOF) tests were applied on these data.
★in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining e.g. Processing of as-mined coal typically results in considerable amount of coarse and fine coal processing wastes because of in-seam and out-of-seam dilution mining.
★intact rock parameters e.g. The aim is to relate commonly used intact rock parameters of pre-failure (tangent modulus E i and secant modulus E s) and peak strength (σ ci) states to parameters of the post-failure state under unconfined compression.
★joint length e.g. Since joint length has a range of values, it is useful to have an understanding of the distribution of these values in order to predict how the extreme values may be compared to the values obtained from a small sample.
★joint systems e.g. For this purpose, three datasets of joint systems from nine exposures of igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks are studied.
★joint trace length 节理迹长
★joint trace length distribution e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.
★joint trace length probability distribution function 节理迹长概率分布函数
★jointed rock masses e.g. To predict the behavior of structures in and on jointed rock masses, it is necessary to characterize the geomechanical properties of joints and intact rock.
★logarithmic 对数 e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★logarithmic and exponential functional forms e.g. Relations estimating the residual strength and dilatancy from the pre-peak and peak state parameters are in logarithmic and exponential functional forms, respectively.
★longwall method e.g. The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m.
★modulus e.g. Thus, this study recommended that further research be undertaken regarding the role of modulus “shape-anisotropy” within the same lithotype.
★overburden e.g. Under the high overburden and tectonic stresses, roadways could collapse or experience excessive deformation, which not only endangers mining personnel but could also reduce the functionality of the roadway and halt production.
★overburden (OB) dump e.g. The improper management of the overburden (OB) dump can result in stability issues which may affect safety and production of the mine.
★peak e.g. In unconfined conditions, data related to the post-peak region of the intact rock parameters are not common as pre-peak and peak state parameters of stress–strain behavior; For the estimation of post-failure parameters in terms of the pre-peak and peak states, the functional relations were assessed.
★post-failure e.g. For problems involving rock in the failed state around structures, proper choice of plastic constitutive laws and post-failure parameters is important for the modeling of the failed state; Post-failure parameters are the drop modulus (D pf), representing the slope of the falling portion in brittle state, residual strength (σ cr), and dilatancy angle (ψ°).
★pre-failure and post-failure e.g. The results from the pre-failure and peak state testing parts were processed and compared to the post-failure stress–strain parameters.
★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties 破坏前与破坏后力学特性
★pre-failure and post-failure mechanical properties of rock material of different origin 不同来源岩石材料破坏前与破坏后力学特性
★probability distribution function 概率分布函数 e.g. According to these GOF tests, the lognormal (对数正态) distribution was found to be the best probability distribution function for representing a joint trace length distribution.
★range e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47. It seems that the high range value of anisotropic index is mainly due to slight undulation of foliation planes, that being not perfectly straight.
★ratio e.g. The ratio of σ max /UCS is related to the observed depth of failure and failure initiation occurs when σ max is roughly equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS; With an exponential trend, the D pf/E s ratio increases with decreasing E i/σ ci ratio；Due to their lack of long-range crystal ordering, allophane are difficult to study and their structure is still not completely understood, particularly with respect to the effect of widely varying Al:Si ratios in the same fundamental structural unit; Thus, the present results suggest a model of allophane structure in which one fundamental structural type, containing a complete octahedral sheet, can accommodate a range of Al:Si rations.
★residual friction angle e.g. It has been found that the residual friction angle of the material comprising the dump structural unit dominates stability.
★residual strength e.g. Mobilization of residual strength can occur by operational induced strains and/or the presence of water.
★resultant failure e.g. The resultant failure is manifest as a bilinear wedge movement of two ridged blocks defined by linear rupture planes.
★roadway deformation e.g. The monitoring data indicated that the roadway deformation in the experimental section was at least 40–50 % less than the previous sections.
★roadway failure mechanism
★rock failure e.g. It is demonstrated using the Mine-by tunnel notch breakout example that when the realistic “as-built” excavation boundary condition is honored, the “actual” in-situ rock strength, given by 0.8 UCS, can be applied to simulate progressive brittle rock failure process satisfactorily.
★rock spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring.
★rock strength e.g. The interpreted, reduced in-situ rock strength of 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS without considering geometry irregularity is therefore only an “apparent” rock strength.
★rocks e.g. igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks (火成岩、沉积岩及变质岩)
★shear strength of the foundation e.g. The shear strength of the foundation was fully mobilized and provided a slip surface for the overlying dump material.
★soil and rock mechanics e.g. Safe, economical and environmentally acceptable management of coal waste involves consideration of geology, soil and rock mechanics, hydrology, hydraulics, geochemistry, soil science, agronomy and environmental sciences.
★spalling strength e.g. In addition, it has been suggested that the in-situ rock spalling strength, i.e., the strength of the wall of an excavation when spalling initiates, can be set to the crack initiation stress determined from laboratory tests or field microseismic monitoring; It is demonstrated that the “actual” in-situ spalling strength of massive rocks is not equal to 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, but can be as high as 0.8 ± 0.05 UCS when surface irregularities are considered.
★spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.
★strength anisotropic index 强度各向异性指数 e.g. Strength anisotropic index ranges between 0.96 and 1.47.
★strength anisotropy 强度各向异性 e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.
★strength of massive rocks e.g. It is widely accepted that the in-situ strength of massive rocks is approximately 0.4 ± 0.1 UCS, where UCS is the uniaxial compressive strength obtained from unconfined tests using diamond drilling core samples with a diameter around 50 mm.
★stress–strain curve e.g. Under compression, gathering data related to the post-failure part of the stress–strain curve requires stiff servo-controlled testing systems; Complete stress–strain curves were generated for various intact rock of different origin.
★stripped spoil e.g. In any open cast mine, the management of stripped spoil during mining is crucial to the mine’s successful operation.
★support vector machine
★support vector machine (SVM) model e.g. support vector machine (SVM) model is used to predict the joint trace length; SVM is a novel machine learning method, which is a powerful tool used to solve the problem characterized by small sample and non-linearity with a good generalization performance.
★surrounding rock strata and coal seams e.g. Roadway instability has always been a major concern in deep underground coal mines where the surrounding rock strata and coal seams are weak and the in situ stresses are high.
★trace length e.g. Among geometry properties of joints, trace length has a vital importance, because it affects rock mass strength and controls the stability of the rock structures in jointed rock masses.
★transversely isotropic rocks e.g. Assessment of strength anisotropy in transversely isotropic rocks has been one of the most challenging subjects in rock engineering.
★value e.g. Therefore low CTI values result from higher slope values and small drainage areas, whereas high CTI values result from lower slope values and larger drainage areas. Note that this value does not consider wetness contributed from the climate of an area, but is purely dependent on the topographic influence on wetness.
★Young modulus 杨氏模量 e.g. However, in this study, Young modulus values of amphibolite rocks with β follow both types of shape-anisotropy, “U-shape” and “decreased order-shaped”.
The authors thank Alex Blumenfeld and Richard Williams for assistance with NMR spectroscopy, and Noriko Yamaguchi for sending allophane, imogolite, and pumice samples from Dr Hiradate’s collection. Two anonymous reviewers provided helpful and constructive comments that improved the manuscript substantially. An Idaho Space Grant Consortium Research Initiation Grant provided funding for this work. Portions of this research were carried out at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, a Directorate of SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and an Office of Science User Facility operated for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science by Stanford University.
The authors would like to thank the staff and postgraduate students at UPC, Barcelona for their assistance in carrying out the microstructural study (with special thanks to Ms. Analice Lima). In particular, the authors would like to thank Dr. Ana Maria Fernandez Diaz from the CIEMAT Laboratory, Madrid, Spain for their carrying out the X-ray diffraction investigation. The support of Dr. Ria Soemitro and Prof. Mark Dyer during the initial stages of this research is also appreciated. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of the Carnegie Trust for the University of Scotland, Bellahouston Traveling Scholarship, the Research Enhancement Group at the University of Strathclyde (There were no specific numbers for these grants. They were small grants to cover travel expenses and small pieces of equipment and consumables) and the EC (contact number MIF1-CT-2006-040375).
The authors would like to thank Make Architects for contribution of images and background information regarding the architectural concept; David Littlefield for the architectural description; Wohr Parking Systems for the car park images; and Birmingham Development Company for site progress photographs. The key members of the project team were: client – Birmingham Development Company; architects – Make Architects; civil structural engineering – Buro Happold; building services engineering – Hoare Lea; main contractor – BuildAbility Ltd; and concrete frame contractor – O’Donnell Developments.
The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the client project team and the collaboration effort of the wider project team, which included Roadbridge Ltd, BAM/W&F joint venture, Veolia Water Ireland, Shevlin Engineering Ltd, Tom Philips Associates, AGEC Ltd(Ireland), Ecological Advisory & Consultancy Services, Hydro-Environmental Services and Ordnance Survey Ireland.
We thank ONDRAF-NIRAS and SCK-CEN for supporting the project and Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft for funding the BIB-cryo-SEM instrument (Project UR 64/9-2). We are also grateful to Uwe Wollengurg (GIA at RWTH University) for his help with maintenance and technical aspects of SEM.
This research was support by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41272344), the National Basic Research 973 Program of China (Grant No. 2014GB046905 and 2013GB036003) and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Grant No. BK2012568). We also would like to express our sincere gratitude to the editor Garranza-Torres C and five anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments, which have greatly improved this paper.
This work was support by the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation (KOSEF) Mid-career Research Program grant funded by the Korea government (MEST) (No.NRF-2013R1A2A2A01005430), and by Dr. H.J. Kweon and the graduate students at Dong-A University, Busan, who provide valuable assistance with the laboratory and field tests.
The assistance of CSIRO Energy Technology, especially Dr. David French, for the provision of coal samples to assist the calibration process is gratefully acknowledged. Thanks are also expressed to Ian Croudace of the National Oceanography Center, Southampton, and to an anonymous reviewer, for the constructive comments on the manuscript.
The editors gratefully acknowledge the splendid and willing cooperation of the authors of various chapters of the book – this is indeed a significant contribution to their profession and the coal industry. One look at this list of names shows that each chapter was written by an expert in his field. In some instances, the authors used the help of members of their staff, and this assistance by unnamed persons is also appreciated.
Although no specific credit is given to those individuals, companies, coal magazines, state mining departments, the US Bureau of Mines, and associations that furnished photographs and diagrams, their help is acknowledged.
And we must not forget the precedent set 30 years ago by the Kentucky coal companies, associations, organizations, and individuals who backed the Mayo State Vocational School and the Kentucky Mining Institute in producing the earlier predecessor volume.
Special appreciation is due Marianne Snedeker, SME-AIME, and her staff for shepherding the project through the production stages.
在学科服务工作中，当谈及英文论文写作时，我常建议作者平时多看多写 -- 在写作之前，尽量多看一些英美学者撰写的相关论文，从中汲取有用的“词汇”、“句型”、“句子”等；在写作时，要尽可能突破汉语文化的“思维模式”，以英美英语文化“思维”来表述所要传递的思想（信息）。例如，在 “The main objective of landslide hazard modeling is to predict areasprone to landslides either spatially or temporally”这句话中，英国学者用“prone to landslides either spatially or temporally”来“修饰”“areas”。
★adsorbates e.g. These authors found that the dimensional changes in coals were negligible after evacuation of the adsorbates from their experimental apparatus and, thus, swelling appeared to be largely reversible under laboratory conditions.
★adsorption e.g. In addition, adsorption samples were taken after the coal in the canisters was desorbed over many weeks.
★adsorption isotherm e.g. There are no standards for adsorption isotherm analyses; The adsorption isotherms were determined volumetrically using a regulated gas supply system that delivers a constant gas pressure at pre-defined settings up to 4300 kPa methane.
★adsorption isotherm model e.g. The Langmuir adsorption isotherm model was used to define the isotherm curve at the test temperature and pressure.
★adsorption isotherm parameters
★adsorption-induced expansion of coal
★adsorption-induced swelling of coals
★affinity chromatography separation e.g. Affinity CS is important at the later life of a reservoir when reservoir pressure declines to below the critical sorption pressure.
★ash yield value
★basinal burial processes e.g. In contrast, the CBM reservoirs in the areas surrounding Wells-B and -C probably were influenced only through "normal" basinal burial processes.
★biogenic methane e.g. These data indicate methane generation by microbial CO2reduction with minor amounts of thermogenic methane contribution to the coal seam gas, and support the overwhelming contribution of biogenic methane to the Seelyville coal gas produced in this field, as in other coal seams in Indiana.
★canister desorption tests
★Carbondale Group e.g. The formations of the Carbondale Group contain prominent coal seams of economic value for mining and CBM production in Indiana.
★CBM e.g. As described above, most CBM plays are likely to follow "simple" burial/maturation trend.
★chemical de-volatilization e.g. Rank increases through a process of chemical de-volatilization that involves the thermokinetic generation of large volumes of methane (Hunt, 1979);Methane derived from the chemical de-volatilization of coal is termed thermogenic.
★chromatography separation e.g. … a form of chromatography separation (CS) occurs in the reservoir. CS can also occur as part of other reservoir engineering problems such as chemical flood, tracer injection, gas flooding, and sour acid gas injection; The issue of CS is sensible for the systems where the diameters of the pores are small and their lengths are large, i.e., pores in shale. The CS process occurs mainly in shale matrix, e.g., network of nanopores.
★cleat system of the coal
★CO2-induced coal swelling
★coal e.g. Of the major fossil fuels, coal, oil, and natural gas, it is coal that is the most carbon intensive.
★coal and gas shale rock
★coal bed e.g. Coal beds are composed almost entirely of organic material and are primarily classified by their level of maturation (or "rank"); Similistically, in any sedimentary basin, the rank of coal beds will follow Hilt's Law, that is, the deeper the coal bed, the higher the rank (Thomas, 2007).
★coal bed reservoir
★coal dust management
★coal gas e.g. These data indicate methane generation by microbial CO2reduction with minor amounts of thermogenic methane contribution to the coal seam gas, and support the overwhelming contribution of biogenic methane to the Seelyville coal gas produced in this field, as in other coal seams in Indiana
★coal matrix shrinkage functions
★coal mine gas explosion risk control and procedures
★coal mine methane (CMM)
★coal mining safety e.g. The objective of the document was to promote coal mining safety and to promote its use for energy production and for greenhouse gas reduction.
★coal reservoir volumetrics and deliverability e.g. After completing necessary input parameters related to coal reservoir volumetrics and deliverability at the well locations, history matching exercise was initiated.
★coal samples e.g. Coal samples were crushed to a nominal top size of - 212um and approximately 100 g was placed into a high pressure adsorption canister and evacuated for 1 h.
★coal seam degasification e.g. Coal seam degasification is a means to recover energy from the methane gas retained in coal; coal seam gas production, or degasification, can be achieved prior-to- (CBM),during-, or in post-mining phases (CMM) using vertical or horizontal wellbores, depending on the geological conditions and properties of the coal.
★coal seam gas
★coal seam pressures
★coal seam reservoir model e.g. Most of the reservoir and coal-related properties required by the coal seam reservoir model were generated using geostatistics, as described in the previous section.
★coal seams e.g. The Balipapan Formation (Miocene age) in Sangatta, East Kalimantan is thick (〉1500 m) containing abundant coal seams that range in thickness from less than a meter to over 5 m; coal seams are distributed throughout the section and may represent 5 to 7% of the total formation thickness.
★coal swelling e.g. They found that CO2could swell coals ranging from about 0.36% to 1.31% volumetrically, whereas a non-adsorbed gas such as helium produced negligible dimension changes to the coal samples; Several attempts have been made to quantify the relationship between gas adsorption and the swelling of coals.
★coalbed methane (CBM) extraction e.g. Initially, coalbed methane (CBM) extraction was targeted at higher rank coals (bituminous and greater) because of the generally higher gas content and pressures.
★coalbed methane basins
★coalbed methane reservoir
★coals and gas shale rocks e.g. Coals and gas shale rocks are structural and chemical heterogeneous porous materials with porosity and PSDs varying throughout.
★coal's in-situ conditions
★compositional analyses e.g. Compositional analyses of the produced gas from the Seelyville Coal, which can be considered as "dry" gas with an average C2+ concentration of only 0.03.
★compositional variations (of the produced gas in shale gas wells) e.g. Compositional variations in produced gas arise from the differences in physical and chemical properties of the gas components. Important physical properties include molecular size and geometry, while important chemical properties include sorption affinity of the gas components.
★core holes e.g. Three core holes were drilled in late 2009 and early 2010 near the township of Sangatta in the Kutai regency of the Province Kalimantan Iimur for the purpose of gas and petrophysical testing.
★cumulative frequency e.g. The distinction is made between cumulative frequency and cumulative thickness because the former gives an indication of the number and types of coal seams whereas the latter informs where in that thickness range most of the reservoir lies.
★desorption e.g. In addition, adsorption samples were taken after the coal in the canisters was desorbed over many weeks; low rank coals may lose moisture during the desorption process resulting in unreliable estimates in maximum gas holding capacity; Briefly, the canisters were desorbed every 15 min for the first nine hours, and then every 30 min after that until the total gas desorbed was less than 10 cc, then the time was doubled; Canisters were desorbed between 10 and 20 days before being decommissioned.
★diffusive gas flow
★diffusive gas flux
★diffusive mass fluxes
★drilling infill well
★dust explosion e.g. However, what may start as a small-scale methane explosion can propagate as a dust explosion violently in a large area.
★dynamic delta complex
★equilibrium moist coal samples
★experimental apparatus e.g. The experimental apparatus was also maintained at a fixed temperature of 35 ℃ (isothermal) with a high precision temperature controller to +/-0.1 ℃ accuracy.
★experimental gas e.g. A known volume of the experimental gas (CH4or CO2)was injected into the sample cell.
★flow behavior e.g. The model captures the flow behavior in nanopores encountered in shale gas reservoirs.
★formation e.g. The coals are numerous, with net coal thicknesses in the formation sometimes reaching over 100 m; however, individual coal beds in Balikpapan Formation are usually less than five meters in thickness, with the majority of beds being less than 1 m.
★functional groups e.g. More complex molecular models will be investigated to model the real structure of coal and gas shale rocks considering the vacancies and functional groups of the pore surfaces.
★gas e.g. The gas content of the Seelyville Coal in Indiana ranges from less than 0.5m3/t to ～5.7m3/t and it has been estimated that this coal potentially contains 0.03 trillion m3 of gas.
★gas adsorption and transport e.g. We believe that special issue will provide a foundation from which future studies will be carried out to further our understanding of gas adsorption and transport in the chemically heterogenous mciro and mesopores of gas shales.
★gas analyese e.g. Prior to and after sample analyese a gas mixture of known isotopic value was injected to check the performance of the system, no sample is injected unless these are within specification.
★gas and water production rates e.g. During this production duration, gas and water production rates, flowing line pressures, and the pressure differential between the wellhead and line were continuously monitored as daily data.
★gas and water relative permeability
★gas capture and utilization
★gas composition e.g. Therefore, variation of gas composition of the producing gas gives us valuable information about gas transport in the matrix.
★gas content e.g. Measured gas contents range from ﹤1 to 13 m3/t (as reserved basis); Measured gas content is strongly correlated with rank.
★gas diffusion coefficient
★gas emission zone e.g. The later discussions are related to formation of gas emission zone of longwall mine and gas release from various sources within that zone.
★gas emissions e.g. …about the occurrence, release and prediction of gas emissions in coal mines.
★gas flow e.g. There are many models to describe gas flow in tight and ultratight porous media; Numerous investigations have been done on gas flow in porous media, and recent interest in unconventional gas reservoirs has led to studies focused on gas flow in low-permeability media.
★gas holding capacity e.g. Overall, there is greater gas holding capacity with increase in rank and depth; The shallowest sample has a maximum methane gas holding capacity of 2.72m3/t (ar, at 6 MPa) while the highest holding capacity is at a depth of 681 m and is 11.03 m3(ar, at MPa).
★gas law e.g. According to the gas law, higher temperatures should decrease gas holding capacity, although this not always observed in some low rank coals.
★gas layering phenomenon
★gas molecular diffusion coefficient
★gas permeability e.g. Due to the dynamic changes in the coal and the redistribution of the fluids, maximum effective gas permeability increased to 56 and the average of all grid values increased to ～16 md. Owing to the importance of effective permeability in multi-phase flow compared to absolute permeability, the increase in effective permeability can be considered more important compared to the increase solely in absolute permeability due to matrix shrinkage.
★gas saturation e.g. It is beyond the scope of this paper to discuss gas saturation but because of its importance a brief mention is warranted.
★gas shales e.g. Due to the size of the pores and their potential limited connectivity, gas shales exhibit extremely low permeabilities, i.e., on the order of nanoDarcies.
★gas slip effect
★gas species separation
★gas transport mechanisms
★gassy areas e.g. …to separate working areas from gassy areas, since seals are the only barrier between these two sections in case of a methane explosion in the gob.
★geostatistical simulation and co-simulation methods
★geothermal gradient e.g. All three data points form a consistent line and indicate a geothermal gradient of at least 50℃/km.
★gob gas ventholes
★heat flow influence e.g. None of the individual parameter variations would conclusively indicate higher heat flow influence on the CBM reservoir in the Sangatta area.
★high-risk areas e.g. They also identify high-risk areas of a mine such as poorly ventilated areas, gob behind shields, and poorly designed areas of the drainage and in-mine gas transport system where a large amount of air is withdrawn.
★injection and sequestration
★intrinsic permeability e.g. The equation accurately predicts the intrinsic permeability from gas flow data.
★Langmuir adsorption model
★low permeability porous media
★maceral analysis e.g. Maceral analysis indicates that all samples are vitrinite/huminite rich (80-94%, mineral matter free[mmf]).
★matrix block size Important reservoir parameters such as permeability, matrix block size, porosity, and contribution of the sorbed gas to gas production may be subject to history-matching analysis and therefore valuable information may be obtained by applying the results of this research.
★matrix shrinkage functions
★matrix swelling coefficient
★mean free path (the mean free path is comparable to the average pore throats)
★mesopore volumes e.g. It was further shown that Seelyville coals that had the largest specific surface area and largest mesopore volumes occurred at the shallowest depths, and the mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes.
★methane in-place volume
★methane adsorption isotherm
★methane generation e.g. This chapter opens with a brief discussion of methane generation while peat material is going through different coalification processes.
★methane storage capacities
★methane 甲烷 e.g. Methane in coal beds has historically been regarded as a hazard in coal mining; Although the hazard very much remains, methane has also been demonstrated to have large commercial value.
★micro and mesoporous structures
★mine ventilation e.g. They discuss key design concepts, monitoring, various types of ventilation schemes practiced in different countries - due to properties of coals or regulations - and limitations to ventilation for diluting methane effectively, such as excessive gas, humidity, air flow volume and pressure relationship.
★moisture content e.g. Moisture content decreases significantly with depth in some boreholes.
★moisture values e.g. Moisture values are around 20% (adb) at about 250m and decrease to about 10% (adb) towards the bottom of the well (～600 m).
★mole fraction e.g. The simulation results confirm variations in the mole fraction of the produced gas components with time.
★molecular pore-network model
★normalized producing concentration
★organic materials e.g. Organic materials are especially prone to physico-chemical changes with even the slightest increase in burial depth; the degree, rate and magnitude of change in the maturation of organic materials are mostly determined by temperature and time (Taylor et al.,1998).
★permeability e.g. Permeability of coals increases as a result of gas desorption and pressure depletion during production; During this exercise, recorded bottom-hole pressure were honored and gas and water production rates were estimated by automatically varying parameters such as absolute permeability, porosity, drainage area, wellbore skin, etc; Absolute permeability for fractures required values that represent easting (X), northing (Y), and vertical (Z) directions.
★point-wise e.g. For co-simulations, first primary variables were selected using a correlation analysis between normal scores of all possible coal reservoir parameters of fluid flow and storage and point-wise coal parameters.
★pore e.g. Pores in coal vary in size from microns to angstroms in dimension and cleat-features.
★pore matrices e.g. Determining the transport of CO2within the model systems can be used to understand the complex pore matrices of coal and gas shale that are important to determining their potential for CO2storage.
★pore surface chemistry
★pore walls e.g. Gas molecules constantly collide with each other and with pore walls.
★proximate analysis e.g. A total of 111 samples were analyzed for proximate analysis (moisture, ash, volatile matter and fixed carbon by difference).
★relative permeability functions e.g. In this study, Corey relative permeability functions were used. Thus, the parameters of gas and water relative permeability functions, such as the exponent of the water relative permeability curve (Nw), the exponent of the gas relative permeability curve (Ng), initial water saturation (Swi), and connate water saturation (Swc) were also changed between runs to adjust the shape of production curves to obtain a successful match.
★reservoir attributes e.g. There are few documented cases of the effect of localized high heat flow on CBM reservoir attributes.
★reservoir parameters e.g. Important reservoir parameters such as permeability, matrix block size, porosity, and contribution of the sorbed gas to gas production may be subject to history-matching analysis and therefore valuable information may be obtained by applying the results of this research.
★reservoir permeability e.g. Average reservoir pressure drops faster for the cases with higher reservoir permeability; This figure shows that C1 produces faster in more permeable reservoirs.
★reservoir temperature e.g. All isotherms were determined at reservoir temperature.
★sample cell e.g. As gas in the sample cell is adsorbed, there is a corresponding decrease in pressure that is proportional to the volume adsorbed.
★★samples e.g. These samples, upon arrival at the surface, were immediately wrapped in cling wrap, triple bagged in thick plastic bags, sealed and refrigerated (between 4-10℃) to prevent any loss of water. The samples were also analyzed for vitrinite reflectance, maceral composition and elemental (ultimate) analysis.
★sedimentary basin e.g. Similistically, in any sedimentary basin, the rank of coal beds will follow Hilt's Law, that is, the deeper the coal bed, the higher the rank (Thomas, 2007).
★shale gas e.g. Other complexities of gas production in shale include gas sorption and diffusion processes. Thanks to advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, we have the ability to produce economically from these reservoirs. However, many challenges still lie ahead. These challenges include production data analysis and determination of effective reservoir permeability and matrix block size after hydraulic fracturing.
★shale gas recovery e.g. The work of Fathi et al. investigates the effect of gas adsorption and transport on CO2 injectivity for enhanced shale gas recovery.
★shale gas reservoir development
★shale gas reservoirs e.g. Shale gas reservoirs in the United States are vast and gas from these reservoirs is already contributing to U.S. fossil energy production.
★shale gas wells
★shale matrix e.g. The CS process occurs mainly in shale matrix, e.g., network of nanopores; A numerical model such as the one presented in this paper can be used to analyze producing gas composition variation to determine the average length of shale matrix or apparent permeability of the matrix.
★shale reservoirs e.g. Shale reservoirs are categorized as unconventional reservoirs because they are extremely tight, with pores in the range of nanometers and permeabilities in the range of nanodarcys.
★slip effects e.g. At typical reservoir pressures in conventional reservoirs, the apparent permeability is very close to the absolute permeability, and the slippage effect is negligible.
★★spatiotemporal modeling e.g. An extensive literature review related to application of different techniques to spatiotemporal modeling of coal resources is given in volume 112 of the International Journal of Coal Geology.
★specific surface area e.g. It was further shown that Seelyville coals that had the largest specific surface area and largest mesopore volumes occurred at the shallowest depths, and the mineral-matter content influenced both specific surface area as well as mesopore and micropore volumes.
★tectonic and hydrothermal activity
★Tertiary age e.g. Sumatra and Kalimantan account for 99% of that coal production, all from Tertiary age coal seams.
★Tertiary basins e.g. The Tertiary basis in these two regions have an estimated resource in excess of 105 billion tons.
★thermogenic e.g. Methane derived from the chemical de-volatilization of coal is termed thermogenic.
★tight formations e.g. For example, desorption, a process that is dominant in CBM, also occurs in shale, and shale gas reservoirs can be described as tight formations, much like "tight gas" reservoirs.
★tight gas reservoirs
★tortuosity e.g. For a given permeability, the larger the tortuosity, the smaller the normalized producing more fraction of methane at early time.
★vitrinite reflectance e.g. The trends in virtrinite reflectance have correlations to other coal properties already discussed.
★water table level e.g. The other assumption is that the water table level in all wells is within 5-10 m of the ground level.
Rate在论文中出现的频次也比较高，其常指“速度”（a quantity measured with respect to another measured quantity, e.g. a rate of speed of 60 km an hour），“比率”（a measure of a part with respect to a whole; a proportion, e.g. the mortality rate, a tax rate）等，例如，“Palagonite at Surtsey grew at a rate of 2.8 um/y at 100°C and even at this faster growth rate, approximately 1800 y would be required for a 1 cm crack to fill with palagonite.”
在表示“比率”时，rate所涉及的两个items一般分别是部分和整体，也就是说，这里的rate是部分与整体的“比率”，例如，“According to the sixth national population census conducted on 1 November 2010, China's population growth rate was only 0.47%, ranking 159th in the world. ”
★This result is reasonably consistent with the growth rates measured by Decarreau et al. (1987)
★This movement was subsequently recovered and the comparison is recovered also until January 2008, where the measured displacement rate increased, whereas the calculated rate remains constant.
★The present study couples experimental and analytical data with field observations in an attempt to constrain the rate and temperature of formation of naturally occurring nontronites from Columbia River Basalt flows.
★A comparison of experimental and field timescales with other estimates of nontronite growth rates suggests that natural nontronite crystallization in the region must have occurred at ambient, near-surface temperatures over timescales of up to millions of years.
★Jakobsson and Moore (1986) found that at 100°C palagonite formed a rim on basaltic glass at a rate of 2.8 um/y, and that this rate doubled with every 12°C increase in temperature. At temperatures＞120°C, nontronite formed a rim on olivine crystals at a rate of 0.3 um/y; this rate doubled with every 8°C increase, but nontronite growth was not observed at lower temperatures. This growth rate is faster than the rates measured experimentally by Decarreau et al. (1987), but drops more rapidly with temperature.
★Comparisons of statistical methods previously used to model landslide hazards concluded that logistic regression results in the lowest rate of error.
例如，如果在“The mine extracted coal at a depth of approximately 350 m, where a longwall method was applied”中用上using，这个句子可改成“Coal was extracted using a longwall method at a depth of approximately 350 m或The mine was using a longwall method to extract coal at a depth of approximately 350 m”。 不难看出，含有using的句子更凝练了；同样，“All data used were converted from their original map projection into decimal degrees, using the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library software”比“All data used were converted from their original map projection into decimal degrees, which the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library software was adopted”更漂亮了。下面11则实例进一步彰显了using之巧用。
★The failure envelopes of CO2-saturated coal were predicated using the proposed strength reduction model.
★Recent developments in instrumentation mean that the analysis of drill cores can be performed rapidly, at millimeter to sub-millimeter scales, using one of several automated, laboratory-based, core-scanning energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometer systems.
★A number of different coal samples were cross-analyzed in the companion study using a variety of techniques.
★Analysis of the site using limit equilibrium methods revealed that an influential factor in the future movement of the slip was the elevated pore water pressures observed along the failure plane.
★However, detailed analysis of the effect of rainfall patterns on the magnitude of pore pressures acting along the failure surface was not possible using these methods.
★The aim of this paper is to describe how coupled hydro-mechanical modeling of the site, using local rainfall records, was able to shed light on the movement trends of this landslip.
★Using EXAFS and XANES spectroscopy, Baker et al. (2010) showed that this can be achieved for low-Fe natural soil clays.
★To test the hypothesis that Fe in the natural samples is a combination of substituted and surface-sorbed Fe, the XANES spectrum of natural allophane was analyzed using linear combination fitting (LCF).
★Samples were analyzed using Fe K-edge X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XAFS).
★To study nontronite formation and properties, the mineral has been synthesized in the laboratory using various methods.
在帮助作者修改英文论文时，笔者有时会发现有些作者不能正确使用respectively(分别地；各自地；各个地) --- 有的将respectively放在句子的最前面，有的搁在句子的中间 --- 例如，有人把“这个水箱的长宽高分别是3米、2米、1米”译成“This water-container’s length, width, height is respectively 3m, 2m, 1m”，而正确的翻译应为“The length, width and height of this water-container are 3m, 2m and 1m, respectively”或者“The length, width and height of this water-container are 3, 2 and 1m, respectively”。
★Confining stress and injection pressure are 1.0MPa and 0.7MPa, respectively.
★Peak values of movement recorded in BH103, BH104 and BH105 between March and April 2009 were 42, 32 and 90 mm/a, respectively.
★Synthesis of ferric smectites from gels under reducing and oxidizing conditions, were investigated by Decarreau and Bonnin (1986) and Decarreau et al. (1987), respectively.
★Fig. 9 and 10 represent the rockfall trajectories and the distribution of the bounce height and kinetic energy for the each section, respectively.
★The most frequent values are obtained by 500 to 600 kJ, 12 to 15 m/s, 0.2 to 2 m and 45°to 65°, respectively.
★To be on the safe side, the capacity of the impact energy and the height of catchfence based on the group B are chosen to be minimum 600 kJ and 4 m high, respectively.
★Young’s modulus, E and yield stress, σof the steel post is assigned to 210 GPa and 235 MPa, respectively.
★The net barrier and cables shown in Figs. 13 and 14 are made of truss elements given by 8 mm and 16 mm of diameters, respectively.
★The total forces and the total deflection of the net barrier have a tendency to reduce with the higher friction coefficients ranging from 364 kN to 338 kN and from 6.1 m to 5.7 m, respectively.
★The impact height at the net barrier and the impact angle of the boulder are set to be 2.3 m from the ground surface and 37.5°from the horizontal, respectively to make the impact condition consistent with the in situ field test, TSB6.
大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称的英文翻译一般比较“恒定”，如校长是President, 副校长要翻译成Vice-President，而不是Associate President; 物理学教授是Professor of Physics，而物理学讲师要翻译成Lecturer on Physics，物理学助教需译成Assistantin Physics（或Preceptor in Physics）。所以，在英译大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称时，一定要“遵守”英语文化的“约定俗成”，切忌“望文生义”。下面是大学行政职务、各类学生以及教师职称的英文翻译，供参考。
★参数 parameters 例如，Internationally, it has been established that spontaneous combustion leading to fire in a coal mine depends both on intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. The intrinsic parameters are mainly associated with the nature of the coal, i.e. its physico-chemical characteristics, petrographic analysis and mineral matter content. Extrinsic parameters are mainly site specific and are related to geological, mining methods and environmental conditions prevailing during extraction of coal.
★初始氧化 initial oxidation
★点火，燃烧 ignite, ignition 例如，When coal is exposed to oxygen, its temperature rises and generates heat and in turn promotes further oxidation, which can cause it to ignite suddenly.
★多元回归分析 multiple regression analysis
★二次氧化 second oxidation
★发生，出现 occur, occurance 例如，to prevent a spontaneous combustion from occurring; Once combustion occurs or comes close to igniting….
★反应 reaction 例如，The oxidation of coal causing spontaneous combustion is an exothermic reaction. Heat produced by this action, if not properly diluted, accelerates and speed up the reaction. Finally, it automatically leads to spontaneous combustion of coal.
★反应时间 reaction time
★放热氧化 exothermal oxidation 例如，Furthermore, coal exposed to the air leads to exothermal oxidation of the carbon.
★非易燃煤层 non-fiery coal seams
★风化煤 weathered coal
★过热煤 overheated coal
★火灾灾害 fire hazard 例如，fighting fire hazards
★交点温度 crossing point temperature 例如，It may be mentioned here that the lower is the crossing point temperature of coal, the higher is its susceptibility to spontaneous combustion.
★主焦煤 prime coking coal:
★炼焦煤 coking coal
★半焦煤 semi-coking coal
★非炼焦煤 non-coking coal
★煤层发火，煤层火灾 coal seam fire 例如，Coal seam fire can smolder underground for decades and possibly hundreds of years and have numerous social, economic, and ecological impacts around the world; The precise remote detection of coal seam fires is necessary prior to developing any strategies to remediate them.
★煤尘 coal dust 例如，As more coal dust rises into the air the chance of a spontaneous combustion rises.
★煤火，煤火灾 coal fires 例如，Just in People's Republic of China, approximately 750 coal fires were burning in 1997. Problems associated with coal fires include the destruction of energy resources, the ignition of forest fire, the subsidence of surface infrastructure including houses and building, and the formation of toxic fumes escaping from vents and contaminant plumes in the shallow groundwater.
★煤样 coal sample
★煤渣，煤矸石等含煤废物（垃圾) coal-waste 例如，Coal-waste typically contains appreciable amounts of coal from seams that are not economic to recover, and a variety of different host rocks, e.g., pyrite-bearing carbonaceous shales and sandstones. Organic matter (coal, wood and garbage) usually comprises 20-30% of the waste.
★煤渣，煤矸石等含煤废物（垃圾)场 coal-waste dump
★煤渣，煤矸石等含煤废物（垃圾)发火（火灾） coal-waste fire
★煤自燃倾向性 susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion
★潜在（可能的）自然 potential self combustion 例如，We have to look to a way uncover potential self combustion hazards before they happen.
★浅煤层发火，浅煤层火灾 shallow coal seam fire
★燃点 burning point 例如，A combination of the two methods based on the joint or combined inversion of the two dataset and use of attributes can be used to localize quite precisely the position of the burning point.
★热点 hot spot 例如，In the study, it managed to observe the evolution of self-heating areas, i.e., the appearance of hot spots, their migration and their disappearance were observed.
★热强度 heat intensity
★三次氧化 third oxidation
★特征温度 characteristic temperature
★危险，灾害 risk 例如，The technique helps prevent the risk of coal spontaneous combustion.
★位置，方位 position 例如，However, one of these geophysical methods can be used to diagnose with certainty the position of a coal seam fire.
★温度测点 temperature measuring point
★悬浮煤尘 airborne coal dust
★氧，氧气 oxygen 例如，to release oxygen out of the coal pile.
★氧化 oxidate, oxidation 例如，When coal is exposed to oxygen, its temperature rises and generates heat and in turn promotes further oxidation, which can cause it to ignite suddenly.
★氧化煤 oxidated coal 例如，The oxidated coal is prone to the spontaneous combustion.
★易燃煤层 fiery coal seams
★属性，特征 attribute 例如，In geophysics, an attribute is defined as a quality or characteristic inherent in or ascribed to a geological feature or process.
★自发热 spontaneous heating
★自发热区域（面积）self-heating areas, self-heated areas 例如，The NDSI is useful in specifying the exact location of self-heating areas.
★自然 spontaneous combustion 例如，Spontaneous heating or combustion is one of the crucial issues in coal mines; Spontaneous combustion leading to fire is a recurrent danger in coal mining industry of the world.
★自热，自发热 self-heating 例如，The many features that increase the susceptibility to self-heating include climate, coal rank, ash, surface areas exposed (particle size), mineral composites (especially pyrite), volatile matter, organic matter type (exinite, inertinite) and storage time. The layered structure of coal-waste dumps, their shape and their degree of compaction also play an important role in self-heating.
党的十八届四中全会（4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee）明确提出了全面推进依法治国的总目标、重大任务。全会提出，全面推进依法治国，总目标是建设中国特色社会主义法治体系，建设社会主义法治国家。在全会公报中出现了不少新“术语（语句）”，有些还是第一次提出。下面是十八届四中全会部分关键术语（语句）的英文翻译，供读者参考。
★中国共产党第十八届中央委员会第四次全体会议：4th plenary session of 18th CPC Central Committee
★建设社会主义法治国家：build a country under "the socialist rule of law"
★建设法治政府：build a law-abiding government
★巡回法庭：circuit courts, 例如： “最高人民法院设立巡回法庭：Supreme People's Court will set up circuit courts”.
★全面推进法治：comprehensively advance the rule of law
★跨行政区划人民法院：cross-administrative region courts, 例如： “探索设立跨行政区划人民法院和人民检察院，探索建立检察机关提起公益诉讼制度：the country will explore establishing cross-administrative region courts and procuratorates, and seek to allow prosecutors to file public interest litigation cases”.
★人权司法保障：protection of human rights in judicial procedures
★从符合条件的律师、法学专家中招录立法工作者、法官、检察官：recruit lawmakers, judges and prosecutors from qualified lawyers and law experts
★法治社会建设：building of a law-based society
★保证司法公正：ensure judicial justice
★确保党在中国特色社会主义法制建设中的领导地位：ensure the leadership of CPC in "the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics".
★形成中国特色社会主义法制服务体系：form a system serving "the socialist rule of law with Chinese characteristics"
★依法保障“一国两制”实践和推进祖国统一：guarantee the practice of "one country, two systems" and promote national reunification in line with laws
★提高司法体系的公信力：improve the credibility of judicial system
★完善中国特色社会主义法律体系：improve the socialist system of laws with Chinese characteristics
★政府重大决策合法性：legitimacy of major decision-making in governments
★重大决策终身责任追究制度：lifelong liability accounting system for major decisions
★依党规党纪管好自身：manage itself in line with Party rules and disciplines
★人民当家作主的权力：people's rights as the master of the nation
★政绩考核体系：performance appraisal system, 例如： “The effectiveness of implementing rule of law will be a significant index in judging the work of officials at various levels and will be added to their performance appraisal system”.
★推进依法执政：promote administration by law
★增强全民法律意识：promote public awareness of law
★增强全民法治观念：promote the public awareness of rule of law
★推进法制：promote the rule of law
★推进政府事务的透明度：promote transparency of government affairs
★建立领导干部干预司法活动、插手具体案件处理的记录、通报和责任追究制度：record officials who interfere in judicial cases and name them publicly to hold them accountable
★责任倒查机制：retrospective mechanism to hold people accountable for wrong decisions
★依法治国：rule the country in line with the law
★保障司法公正：safeguard judicial justice
★党在推进法制中的领导：CPC's leadership in pushing forward rule of law
★加快法制政府建设：speed up the building of a law-abiding government
★依法管理国家和社会事务：state and social affairs be handled in line with law
★加强宪法实施：strengthen the implementation of the Constitution
Maryam Kolahdoozanreceived her MSc of applied science, specializing in concrete materials, from Ryerson University, Toronto, ON, Canada. Her areas of research include sustainable alternatives for producing unshrinkable fill and deterioration mechanism of concrete exposed to internal sulfate attack and method for mitigation.
Douglas F. CRICKNER was born at McAlpin, a southern West Virginia coal camp, and had his first experience in coal mining at age 18 at the McAplin mine where for three successive summers he was employed on conveyor sections in 34-in. coal to drag pans and supplies, hang canvas, etc. He graduated from Virginia Polytechnic Institute with a degree in mining engineering in 1941. Following this, he served with Koppers Coal Co. and The New River Co. as mining engineer and assistant mine foreman. In 1946, he was employed by his present company, Pocahontas Land Corp., which he has served as mine inspector, chief engineer, general manager, and currently as vice president. During one four-year period he was transferred to an associated company, Norfolk & Western Railway Co., as superintendent of mines at its Pond Greek Colliers in Pike County, KY. He has taken an active part in a number of engineering and coal institutes. He is a past chairman of The Society of Mining Engineers of AIME Coal Division and is currently serving as a director of SME and vice president-AIME Easter Region.
M. E. HOPKINS received his education in geology from the University of Arkansas, then earned his Ph.D. at the University of Illinois in 1957. He served in the Army Air Corps in 1946-47. In 1951, he joined the Coal Section of Illinois State Geological Survey as a part-time research assistant. In 1955, he joined the faculty of the Department of Geology at the University of Tulsa but in 1963 returned to the Illinois Survey, becoming head of the Coal Section in 1968 where he served until 1975. He was vice president of Harry Williamson, Inc., Benton, IL, and is now director of geology, Peabody Coal Co., St. Louis, MO.
H. L. WASHBURN received a BS and MS in mining engineering from the University of Kentucky. His first job was with the Research and Development Division, Consolidation Coal Co. in Pittsburgh, PA, where he worked for three years on a variety of projects including the development of pipeline transportation of coal. He was transferred to Fairmont, WV, as manager of preparation, and subsequently became chief engineer of the Mountainer Division of Consolidation Coal Co. His next assignment was a three-year period with Clinchfield Coal Co. as director of preparation, which involved the actual management of all the plants of Clinchfield. He went to North American Coal Corp. in 1966 as assistant vice president and was later promoted to vice president-engineering and senior vice president-operations, his present position.
Jack A. SIMON first worked on coal geology for the Illinois State Geological Survey as a student in 1937. After serving in the Army Air Corps during World War II, he returned to the Survey on a full-time basis. He was head of the Coal Section, 1953-1967, after which he became head of the Geological Group and principal geologist. Since 1974 he has been chief of the Illinois State Geological Survey. Professional activities have included not only coal geology but, in recent years, environmental problems associated with mining transportation and use of fossil fuels.
Lu Wang has been a Preceptor in the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology since 2013. She is involved in teaching several courses at Harvard including Physical Sciences 10 and 11, and Chemistry 301hf -- a teaching practicum course for chemistry graduate students. Before becoming a Preceptor, she held a two-year postdoctoral appointment at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In addition to her research on two-dimensional nanobiosensors, she also participated in developing and teaching a college chemistry curriculum in the founding year of Singapore University of Technology and Design, which is established in collaboration with MIT. Dr. Wang received her Ph.D. in Chemistry from Harvard University in 2011, where she worked in Professor Charles Lieber‘s group to develop label-free silicon nanowire field-effect biosensors. She received her B.S. in Chemistry from Peking University in 2006.
Navin Khaneja(Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering) is broadly interested in the area of mathematical control theory, signals and systems. His current research lies at the interface of control and information theory and physics. He is working on developing geometric techniques for optimal control of quantum mechanical phenomenon.
The work has proven promising for optimal pulse sequences in high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These optimal pulse sequences minimize the effects of decoherence and maximize the sensitivity of NMR experiments. Optimal pulse design can lead to significant reduction of time required for structural analysis of proteins. The work also has immediate applications to the areas of quantum information and computing.
Professor Khaneja is also very interested in the areas of robotics, computer vision, statistical inference and image understanding. His current work in the area of robotics involves design of feedback controllers for stabilization of nonholonomic control systems with applications to locomotion systems.
His recent work in Medical Imaging and Human Brain Mapping develops rich class of probabilistic models to capture inherent variability present in the anatomies and involves design of computationally efficient Bayesian inference algorithms for extracting anatomical information from noisy data collected through various imaging modalities.
在我所从事的学报英文编辑（兼职）工作过程中，每期总会遇到一到两篇机器翻译的“杰作”。例如，我曾两次碰到同一作者将工程上的“可靠性”翻译成“dependent sex”,毫无你问，这肯定是机器翻译的，正确的译文应为reliability；还有一作者将“方家村地质构造”翻译成“Square Family Village Geological Structure”，真令人啼笑皆非，而正确的译文应为geological structure of Fangjia (Fang-family) village。
就在昨天我遇到有一作者将“基于静态故障树的煤矿提升机系统故障诊断”翻译成了“Based on static fault tree system of coal mine hoist fault diagnosis”，正确的译文应为Coal mine hoist system fault diagnosis based on static fault tree。
如果留意的话，我们每天都会看到望文生义的翻译“范例”。细心的人会发现，“赛格电脑城”最初被译成“Saga Computer City”，后来更正为“Saga IT Mall”；还有“家具城”被译成“Furniture City”; 世纪金花的“星光城”被译成“Star City”。其实，这里的“城”丝毫没有“city”或“town”的意思，而是实际意义上的mall。
又如，为了防止身材高大的人在上下楼梯或进出门时不小心受到意外伤害，我们常会看到“小心碰头”的提醒标志，还附上英文“Take Care of Your head”。其实，“小心碰头”的对应英文是Ducking。
校名的英文名称一般比较“恒定”，不应“随意翻译”。例如，西安科技大学的前身是“西安矿业学院”（1958-1998），其英文名称是“Xi’an Mining Institute”; 1998年更名为“西安科技学院”，2003年更名为“西安科技大学”，所以，从1998年开始，我校的英文名称一直是“Xi’an University of Science and Technology”（可简写为”Xi’an Univ. of Sci.&Tech.”）。
能源学院 College of Energy Science and Engineering
管理学院 College of Management
机械工程学院 College of Mechanical Engineering
建筑与土木工程学院 College of Architecture and Civil Engineering
通信与信息工程学院 College of Communication and Information Engineering
电气与控制工程学院 College of Electrical and Control Engineering
测绘科学与技术学院 College of Geomatics Science and Technology
计算机科学与技术学院 College of Computer Science and Technology
人文与外国语学院 College of Humanities and Foreign Languages
地质与环境学院 College of Geology and Environment Engineering
艺术学院 College of Arts
化学与化工学院 College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering
材料科学与工程学院 College of Materials Science and Engineering
理学院 College of Sciences
体育部 Department of Physical Education（可简写为Dept. of P. E.）
(Dept.of Material Science and Engineering, Xi’an University of Science and Technology, Xi’an710054,China)
Abstract: The different coals were pulverized into ultra-fine powders on a planetary mill. On the basis of SEM photographs and image analysis software, the profile fractal dimensions of coal ultra-fine particles were calculated by using the Area-Perimeter Method, which produced in different grinding technologies. The results indicated that the Area-Perimeter Method can apply in calculation of the fractal dimensions with its correlated coefficient over 0.95;the profiles of coal particles are multifractals; in the initial period the fractal dimensions decrease with the time whereas the fractal dimensions of coal agglomerates increase with the time; ingrinding, the profile fractal dimensions of coal particles with high carbon content, and different grinding assistant additives have different effects for the profile fractal dimensions.
XPS Analysis of Shenfu Coal with Different Density Fraction Under UV Catalytic Photooxidation
YANG Zhi-yuan1,2,ZHOU An-ning2,ZHANG Hong2,ZHANG Qun2
(1.School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Xi'an University of Science and Technology, X i'an,Shaanxi710054,China;2.Geology Institute, Xi'an Branch of China Coal Research Institute, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710054,China)
Abstract: The UV photooxidation of Shenfu coal with different density fraction, which named D3(1.375-1.400 g/cm3)and D4(>1.400 g/cm3), respectively, were carried out in a fixed bed photoreactor. The difference of structural characteristics on the surface of coal and its density fraction were analyzed comparatively using a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) method. The results show that the main form of oxygenous functional groups is C-O on the coal surface. Three types of coal nitrogen(pyrrolic, pyridinic and quaternary functionalities)in coal and its different density fraction, were found. The main forms of nitrogen on the surfaces of Shenfu coal were quaternary and pyrrolic, while on the surfaces of D3 density fraction were pyrrolic and pyridinic,D4 density fraction were pyrrolic, respectively. After the UV photooxidation of coal samples, the contents of oxygen functional groups of all coal samples decreased, while the contents of C-C increased. Meanwhile, the forms of quaternary nitrogen also converted to pyrrolic and pyridinic nitrogen on the surface of coal.
Key words: Shenfu coal; different density fraction; catalytic photooxidation; XPS
在科技英语中，特别是在论文题目中，“基于”出现的频次比较高。在多年的英文编辑工作实践中，笔者经常发现有些作者不能正确翻译“基于”，例如，“基于神经网络的煤层气藏随机建模”被译成“Stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir base neural network”，其正确翻译应为“Stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir based on neural network”或“Neural network-based stochastic simulation of coalbed methane reservoir”。由此可看出，“基于”的翻译一般有两种：一种是“based on”，而另一种是“based-”。
Personal information environment based on Web2.0
或 Web2.0-based personal information environment
Prevention of Coal Roadway Roof Accidents based on Geological Forecast Technology
或 Geological Forecast Technology-based Prevention of Coal Roadway Roof Accidents
Design of strip coal pillar based on the unified strength theory
或 Unified strength theory-based design of strip coal pillar
Key words: deep; soft; rock; roadway under high stress; numerical simulation with FLAC3D; bolting combined support应修改为Key words: soft rock roadway under high stress; numerical simulation with FLAC3D; bolting combined support
Key words: shallow; coal; the seam; fully-mechanized face; the regularity be shown of the mining pressure; the numerical simulation应修改为Key words: shallow coal seam; fully-mechanized face; mine pressure behavior law; numerical simulation
Key words: college; students; mental; health; credit: system: study; suggestion应修改为Key words: college students; mental health; credit system
Study onseismic response of prestressing concrete rigid frame bridges with highpiers and long span in deep reservoir应修改为Seismic response of prestressing concrete rigid frame bridges with highpiers and long span in deep reservoir
Research ofsupport technology in deep soft rock roadway in Tangkou coal mine应修改为Support technology for deep soft rock roadway of Tangkou coal mine
（3） 在题目中尽可能少用of, for等介词,以及冠词（a, the），以求题目凝练，例如：
The21stcentury-oriented higher education of China应修改为
21stcentury-orientedChina’s higher education
Study ofstability of the slope and house ofthenew Baota’s import of tunnel应修改为Stability of the slope and house of new Baota tunnel entrance
Coroner says Whitney Houston accidentally drowned in bathtub
Drowning killedHouston, but drugs took high toll
Dick Cheney's transplant reopens debate about age
Weight-loss surgeries may beat standard treatments for diabetes
U.S.gasoline hits $3.93 agallon: survey
James Cameron reaches deepest spot on Earth
Deep-sea scientists cheer Cameron's historic dive
Impact of climate change may be underestimated
Optimal parameterization of conic curves
A method for generating fabric pattern with Xinjiang ethnic style
Teaching system of engineering graphics based on creative configuration design
Prediction of blast-induced ground vibration using artificial neural networks
Stress redistribution and ground arch development during tunneling
A practical use of CFD for ventilation of underground works
Numerical modeling of in-situ stress calculation using borehole slotter test
Simulation and analysis of electromagnetic force on shield of canned motor
Heat transfer efficiency of double glass curtain wall in summer ofChongqing